作者 主题: VV的读书笔记  (阅读 12839 次)


离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #20 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:00:41 »

by Gary Gygax   
Many questions continue to arise regarding what constitutes a “lawful" act, what sort of behavior is "chaotic", w hat constituted an "evil" deed, and how certain behavior is "good”. There is considerable confusion in that most dungeon- masters construe the terms "chaotic'' and "evil" to mean the same thing, just as they define "lawful" and "good" to mean the same. This is scarcely surprising considering the wording of the three original volumes of DUNGEONS & DRAGONS. When that was written they meant just about the same thing in my mind — notice I do not say they were synonymous in my thinking at that time. The wording in the GREYHAWK supplement added a bit more confusion, for by the time that booklet was written some substantial differences had been determined. In fact, had I the opportunity to do D&D over I would have made the whole business very much clearer by differentiating the four categories, and many chaotic creatures would be good, while many lawful creatures would be evil. Before going into the definitions of these four terms, a graphic representation of their relative positions will help the reader to follow the further discourse. (See HI)
Notice first that the area of neutrality lies squarely athwart the intersection of the lines which divide the four behavioral distinctions, and it is a very small area when compared with the rest of the graph. This refers to true neutrality, not to neutrality regarding certain interactions at specific times, i.e.. a war which will tend to weaken a stronger player or game element regardless of the “neutral” party's actions can hardly be used as a measure of neutrality if it will benefit the party's interest to have the weakening come about.
Also note that movement upon this graph is quite possible with regard to campaign participants, and the dungeonmaster should, in fact, make this a standard consideration in play. This will be discussed hereafter.
Now consider the term "Law” as opposed to "Chaos". While they are nothing if not opposites, they are neither good nor evil in their definitions. A highly regimented society is typically governed by strict law, i.e.. a dictatorship, while societies which allow more individual freedom tend to be more chaotic. The following lists of words describing the two terms point this out. I have listed the words describing the concepts in increasing order of magnitude (more or less) as far as the comparison with the meanings of the two terms in D&D is concerned:

Prescribed Rules




Basically, then, "Law" is strict order and “Chaos" is complete anarchy, but of course they grade towards each other along the scale from left to right on the graph. Now consider the terms "Good" and “Evil" expressed in the same manner:




EVIL (cont.)

The terms “Law’' and "Evil" are by no means mutually exclusive. There is no reason that there cannot be prescribed and strictly enforced rules which are unpleasant, injurious or even corrupt Likewise “Chaos" and "Good” do not form a dichotomy. Chaos can be harmless, friendly, honest, sincere, beneficial, or pure, for that matter. This all indicates that there are actually five, rather than three, alignments, namely:


The lawful/good classification is typified by the paladin, the chaotic/good alignment is typified by elves, lawful/evil is typified by the vampire, and the demon is the epitome of chaotic/evil. Elementals are neutral. The general reclassification of various creatures is shown on Illustration II.









Placement of characters upon a graph similar to that in Illustration I is necessary if the dungeon master is to maintain a record of player-character alignment. Initially, each character should be placed squarely on the center point of his alignment, i.e.. lawful/ good, lawful/evil. etc. The actions of each game week will then be taken into account when determining the current position of each character. Adjustment is perforce often subjective, but as a guide the referee can consider the actions of a given player in light of those characteristics which typify his alignment, and opposed actions can further be weighed with regard to intensity. For example, reliability does not reflect as intense a lawfulness as does principled, as does righteous. Unruly does not indicate as chaotic a state as does disordered, as does lawless. Similarly, harmless, friendly, and beneficial all reflect increasing degrees of good; while unpleasant, injurious, and wicked convey progressively greater evil. Alignment does not preclude actions which typify a different alignment, but such actions will necessarily affect the position of the character performing them, and the class or the alignment of the character in question can change due to such actions, unless counter-deeds are performed to balance things. The player-character who continually follows any alignment (save neutrality) to the absolute letter of its definition must eventually move off the chart (Illustration I) and into another plane of existence as indicated. Note that self- seeking is neither lawful nor chaotic, good nor evil, except in relation to other sapient creatures. Also, law and chaos are not subject to interpretation in their ultimate meanings of order and disorder respectively, but good and evil are not absolutes but must be judged from a frame of reference, some ethos. The placement of creatures on the chart of Illustration If, reflects the ethos of this writer to some extent.
Considering mythical and mythos gods in light of this system, most of the benign ones will tend towards the chaotic/good, and chaotic/evil will typify those gods which were inimical towards humanity. Some few would be completely chaotic, having no predisposition towards either good or evil — REH's f rom perhaps falls into this category.
What then about interaction between different alignments? This question is tricky and must be given careful consideration.Diametric opposition exists between lawful/good and ehaolic/evil and between chaotic- good and lawful/evil in this ethos. Both good and evil can serve lawful ends, and conversely they may both serve chaotic ends, [f we presuppose that the universal contest is between law and chaos we must assume that in any final struggle the minions of each division would be represented by both good and evil beings. This may seem strange at first,but if the major premise is accepted it is quite rational. Barring such a showdown, however, it is far more plausible that those creatures predisposed to good actions will tend to ally themselves against any threat of evil, while creatures of evil will likewise make (uneasy) alliance in order to gain some mutually beneficial end — whether at the actual expense of the enemy or simply to prevent extinction by the enemy. Evil creatures can be bound to service by masters predisposed towards good actions, but a lawful/good character would fain make use of some chaotic/evil creature without severely affecting his lawful (not necessarily good) standing.
This brings us to the subject of those character roles which are t)0t subject to as much latitude of action as the others. The neutral alignment is self-explanatory, and the area of true neutrality is shown on Illustration I. Note that paladins, Patriarchs, and Evil High Priests, however, have positive boundaries. The area in which a paladin may move without loss of his status is shown in Illustration III. Should he cause his character to move from this area he must immediately seek a divine quest upon which to set forth in order to gain his status once again, or be granted divine intervention; in those cases where this is not complied with the status is forever lost. Clerics of either good or evil predisposition must likewise remain completely good or totally evil, although lateral movement might be allowed by the dungeon master,with or without divine retribution. Those top-level clerics who fail to maintain their goodness or evilness must make some form of immediate atonement. If they fail to do so they simply drop back to seventh level. The atonement, as well as how immediate it must be, is subject to interpretation by the referee. Druids serve only themselves and nature, they occasionally make human sacrifice, but on the other hand they aid the folk in agriculture and animal husbandry. Druids are, therefore, neutral — although slightly predisposed towards evil actions.
As a final note, most of humanity falls into the lawful category, and most of lawful humanity lies near the line between good and evil. With proper leadership the majority will be prone towards lawful/good. Few humans are chaotic, and very few are chaotic and evil.
考虑到神话和神话的神,在这个系统中,大多数良性的都趋向于混乱/善良,而混乱/邪恶将代表那些对人类不利的神。有些人是完全混乱的,没有对好或坏的倾向- - - REH的f - rom可能属于这一类。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #21 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:01:48 »

by Gary Gygax
Successful play of D&D is a blend of desire, skill and luck. Desire is often initiated by actually participating in a game. It is absolutely a reflection of the referee's ability to maintain an interesting and challenging game. Skill is a blend of knowledge of the rules and game background as applied to the particular game circumstances favored by the referee. Memory or recall is often a skill function. Luck is the least important of the three, but it is a factor in successful play nonetheless. Using the above criteria it would seem that players who have attained a score or more of levels in their respective campaigns are successful indeed. This is generally quite untrue. Usually such meteoric rise simply reflects an incompetent Dungeonmaster.
While adventurers in a D&D campaign must grade their play to their referee, it is also incumbent upon the Dungeonmaster to suit his campaign to the participants. This interaction is absolutely necessary if the campaign is to continue to be of interest to all parties. It is often a temptation to the referee to turn his dungeons into a veritable gift shoppe of magical goodies, ripe for plucking by his players. Similarly, by a bit of fudging, outdoor expeditions become trips to the welfare department for heaps of loot. Monsters exist for the slaying of the adventurers — whether of the sort who "guard" treasure, or of the wandering variety. Experience points art heaped upon the undeserving heads of players, levels accumulate like dead leaves in autumn, and if players with standings in the 20‘s. 30’s and 40's of levels do not become bored, they typically become filled with an entirely false sense of accomplishment, they are puffed up with hubris. As they have not really earned their standings, and their actual ability has no reflection on their campaign level, they are easily deflated (killed) in a game which demands competence in proportionate measure to players' levels.
It is. therefore, lime that referees reconsider their judging. First, is magic actually quite scarce in your dungeons? It should be! Likewise, treasures should be proportionate both to the levels of the dungeon and the monsters guarding them. Second, absolute disinterest must be exercised by the Dungeonmaster, and if a favorite player stupidly puts himself into a situation where he is about to be killed, let the dice tell the story and KILL him. This is not to say that you should never temper chance with a bit of "Divine Intervention." but helping players should be a rare act on the referee's part, and the action should only be taken when fate seems to have unjustly condemned an otherwise good player, and then not in every circumstance should the referee intervene. Third, create personas for the inhabitants of your dungeon — if they are intelligent they would act cleverly to preserve themselves and slay intruding expeditions out to do them in and steal their treasures. The same is true for wandering monsters. Fourth, there should be some high-level, very tricky and clever chaps in the nearest inhabitation to the dungeon, folks who skin adventures out of their wealth just as prospectors were generally fleeced for their gold in the Old West. When the campaign turkies flock to town trying to buy magical weapons, potions, scrolls, various other items of magical nature, get a chum turned back to flesh, have a corpse resurrected, or whatever, make them pay through their proverbial noses. For example, what would a player charge for like items or services? Find out. add a good bit. and that is the cost you as referee will make your personas charge. This will certainly be entertaining to you. and laying little traps in addition will keep the players on their collective toes. After all. Dungeonmasters are entitled to a little fun tool Another point to remember is that you should keep • strict account of time. The wizard who spends six months writing scrolls and enchanting items is OUT of the campaign for six months, he cannot play during these six game months, and if the time system is anywhere reflective of the proper scale that means a period of actual time in the neighborhood of three months. That will pretty well eliminate all that sort of foolishness. Ingredients for scroll writing and potion making should also be stipulated (we will treat this in an upcoming issue of SR or in a D&D supplement as it should be dealt with at length) so that it is no easy task to prepare scrolls or duplicate potions.
When players no longer have reams of goodies at their fingertips they must use their abilities instead, and as you will have made your dungeons and wildernesses far more difficult and demanding, it will require considerable skill, imagination, and intellectual exercise to actually gain from the course of an adventure. Furthermore, when magic is rare it is valuable, and only if it is scarce will there be real interest in seeking it. When it is difficult to survive, a long process to gain levels, when there are many desired items of magical nature to seek for. then a campaign is interesting and challenging. Think about how much fun it is to have something handed to you on a silver platter — nice once in a while but unappreciated when it becomes common occurrence. This analogy applies to experience and treasure in the D&D campaign.
It requires no careful study to determine that D&D is aimed at progression which is geared to the approach noted above. There are no monsters to challenge the capabilities of 30th level lords. 40th level patriarchs, and so on. Now I know of the games played at CalTech where the rules have been expanded and changed to reflect incredibly high levels, comic book characters and spells, and so on. Okay. Different strokes for different folks, but that is not D&D. While D&D is pretty flexible, that sort of thing stretches it too far. and the boys out there are playing something entirely different — perhaps their own name "Dungeons & Beavers." tells it best. It is reasonable to calculate that if a fair player takes part in SO to 7S games in the course of a year he should acquire sufficient experience points to make him about 9th to 11th level, assuming that he manages to survive all that play. The acquisition of successively higher levels will be proportionate to enhanced power and the number of experience points necessary to attain them, so another year of play will by no means mean a doubling of levels but rather the addition of perhaps two or three levels. Using this gauge, it should take four or five years to see 20th level. As BLACKMOOR is the only campaign with a life of Five years, and GREYHA WK with a life of four is the second longest running campaign, the most able adventurers should not yet have attained 20th level except in the two named campaigns. To my certain knowledge no player in either BLACKMOOR or GREYHA WK has risen above 14th level.
By requiring players to work for experience, to earn their treasure, means that the opportunity to retain interest will remain. It will also mean that the rules will fit the existing situation, a dragon, balrog, or whatever will be a fearsome challenge rather than a pushover. It is still up to the Dungeonmaster to make the campaign really interesting to his players by adding imaginative touches, through exertion to develop background and detailed data regarding the campaign, and to make certain that there is always something new and exciting to learn about or acquire. It will, however, be an easier task. So if a 33rd level wizard reflects a poorly managed campaign, a continuing mortality rate of SO% per expedition generally reflects over-reaction and likewise a poorly managed campaign. It is unreasonable to place three blue dragons on the first dungeon level, just as unreasonable as it is to allow a 10th level fighter to rampage through the upper levels of a dungeon rousting kobolds and giant rats to gain easy loot and experience. When you tighten up your refereeing be careful not to go too far the other way.
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #22 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:02:18 »

Origins of the Game
The most frequently asked question at seminars which I have given on DUNGEONS & DRAGONS is: “How did the game originate?". Because of the frequency of this question, and the involved nature of the reply required, I thought it a good idea to once again put it in writing. The Forward in DUNGEONS & DRAGONS contains most of what follows, but 1 will go into greater detail here.
When the International Federation of Wargaming was at its peak, it contained many special interest groups. I founded one of these, the “Castle & Crusade Society”. All members of this sub-group were interested in things medieval and 1 began publishing a magazine for them entitled Domesday Book. In an early issue, I drew up a map of the “Great Kingdon”. Members of the society could then establish their holdings on the map, and we planned to sponsor campaign-type gaming at some point.Dave Arneson was a member of the C&C Society, and he established a barony, Blackmoor, to the northeast of the map, just above the Great Kingdom. He began a local medieval campaign for the Twin Cities gamers and used this area.
The medieval rules, CHAINMAIL (Gygax and Perren) were published in Domesday Book prior to publication by Guidon Games. Of course, they were in a less developed state, and were only for a 1:20 figure scale. Between the time they appeared in Domesday Book and their publication by Guidon Games, I revised and expanded the rules for 1:20 and added 1:1 scale games, jousting, and fantasy. Rob Kuntz and I had acquired a large number of 40mm figures, and many of them were so heroic looking that it seemed a good idea to play some games which would reflect the action of the great swords and sorcery yarns. So I devised such rules, and the Lake Geneva Tactical Studies Association proceeded to play-test them. When the whole appeared as CHAINMAIL, Dave began using the fantasy rules for his campaign, and he reported a number of these actions to the C&C Society by way of articles.
1   thought that this usage was quite interesting, and a few months later when Dave came down to visit me we played a game of his amended CHAINMAIL fantasy campaign. Dave had taken the man-to-man and fantasy rules and modified them for his campaign. Players began as Heroes or Wizards. With sufficient success they could become Superheroes. In a similar fashion. Wizards could become more powerful. Additionally, he had added equipment for players to purchase and expanded the characters descriptions considerably — even adding several
new monsters to the rather short CHAINMAIL line-up.
The idea of measured progression (experience points) and the addition of games taking place in a dungeon maze struck me as being very desireable. However, that did not really fit in the framework of CHAINMAIL. I asked Dave to please send me his rules additions, for I thought a whole new system should be developed. A few weeks after his visit I received 18 or so handwritten pages of rules and notes pertaining to his campaign, and I immediately began work on a brand new manuscript. “Greyhawk” campaign started — the first D&D campaign!
About three weeks later, I had some 100 typewritten pages, and we began serious play-testing in Lake Geneva, while copies were sent to the Twin Cities and to several other groups for comment. DUNGEONS & DRAGONS had been born. Its final form came over a year later and consisted of nearly 300 manuscript pages which I wrote during the wee hours of many a morning and on weekends.
The first D&D (as opposed to variant CHAINMAIL) dungeon adventurers were: Ernie Gygax, Don Kaye, Rob Kuntz and Terry Kuntz. They were soon joined by Don Arndt, Brian Blume, Tom Champeny, Bill Corey, Bob Dale, Mary Dale, Chip Mornard, Mike Mornard, and Tim Wilson. All of these gamers — as well as the other play-testers — contributed to the final form of the game.
There were then three character classes, with players beginning at first level (rather than as 4th level Hero-types or relatively powerful Wizards), and each level was given a heroic or otherwise descriptive name. The actions that they could follow were outlined. Spells were expanded. The list of monsters was broadened again, and a complete listing of magical items and treasures was given. The reaction to the manuscript was instant enthusiasm. DUNGEONS & DRAGONS differed considerably from Dave’s “Blackmoor" campaign, just as the latter differed from CHAINMAIL: but, based on the reception given to the game by the others testing it, he had to agree that it was acceptable. Although D&D was not Dave’s game system by any form or measure, he was given co-billing as author for his valuable idea kernels. He complained bitterly that the game wasn’t right, but the other readers/play- ers loved it. In fact, the fellows playing the manuscript version were so enthusiastic that they demanded publication of the rules as soon as possible. Thus, D&D was released long before I was satisfied that it was actually ready. 1 am not sorry that we decided to publish then instead of later, even though I’ve often been taken to task about it since, and I hope all of you feel the same way too. You can, however, rest assured that work on a complete revision of the game is in progress, and I promise a far better product.
当国际战争联盟(International Federation of Wargaming)处于鼎盛时期时,它包含了许多特殊利益集团。我创建了其中一个,“城堡和十字军社会”。这个小组的所有成员都对中世纪的事物感兴趣,1开始为他们出版一本名为《末日审判书》的杂志。在一个早期的问题上,我画了一张“伟大的国王”的地图。社会成员可以在地图上建立他们的财产,我们计划在某个时候赞助竞选类型的游戏。Dave Arneson是C&C社会的一员,他在地图上的东北地区建立了一个barony,黑荒原,就在这个伟大的王国之上。他开始给双子城的玩家们做中世纪的活动并使用了这个区域。
中世纪的规则,CHAINMAIL(Gygax和Perren)在《末日审判书》的出版前,由Guidon Games出版。当然,他们在一个欠发达的州,只有1:20的比例。在他们在末日审判书和Guidon Games出版的时间之间,我修改了1:20的规则,并增加了1:1的游戏、比赛和幻想。Rob Kuntz和我已经获得了大量的40mm的数字,他们中的许多人都是如此的英勇,以至于他们看起来是一个好主意来玩一些游戏,这些游戏反映了伟大的剑和魔法的作用。所以我设计了这样的规则,而日内瓦湖战术研究协会开始对他们进行测试。当整个人都以链邮件的形式出现时,Dave开始为他的竞选活动使用幻想规则,他通过文章向C&C协会报告了许多这样的行为。
我认为这种用法非常有趣,几个月后,当戴夫来拜访我的时候,我们玩了一场他修改过的CHAINMAIL fantasy campaign游戏。戴夫已经接受了男人对男人和幻想的规则,并对他的竞选进行了修改。玩家开始是英雄或巫师。有了足够的成功,他们就可以成为超级英雄。以类似的方式。巫师会变得更强大。此外,他还为玩家增加了购买和扩展角色描述的设备——甚至增加了几个
第一个D&D(相对于改型链甲)地牢探险者是:Ernie Gygax,Don Kaye,Rob Kuntz和Terry Kuntz。不久,唐·阿恩特、布莱恩·布鲁姆、汤姆·查佩尼、比尔·科里、鲍勃·戴尔、玛丽·戴尔、奇普·莫纳德、迈克·莫纳德和蒂姆·威尔逊也加入了他们的行列。所有这些玩家——以及其他的游戏测试员——都参与了游戏的最终形式。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #23 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:03:04 »

The Dungeons & Dragons Magic System
by Gary Gygax
Because there are many legendary and authored systems of magic, many questions about the system of magic used in D&D are continually raised. Magic in CHAINMAIL was fairly brief, and because it was limited to the concept of table top miniatures battles, there was no problem in devising and handling this new and very potent factor in the game. The same cannot be said of D & D. While miniatures battles on the table top were conceived as a part of the overall game system, the major factor was always envisioned as the underworld adventure, while the wilderness trek assumed a secondary role, various other aspects took a third place, and only then were miniatures battles considered. So a somewhat different concept of magic had to be devised to employ with the D&D campaign in order to make it all work.
The four cardinal types of magic are those systems which require long conjuration with much paraphernalia as an adjunct (as used by Shakespeare in MACBETH or as typically written about by Robert E. Howard in his "Conan” yarns), the relatively short spoken spell (as in Finnish mythology or as found in the superb fantasy of Jack Vance), ultra-powerful (if not always correct) magic (typical of deCamp A Pratt in their classic "Harold Shea" stories), and the generally weak and relatively ineffectual magic (as found in J.R.R. Tolkien’s work). Now the use of magic in the game was one of the most appealing aspects, and given the game system it was fairly obvious that its employment could not be on the complicated and time consuming plane, any more than it could be made as a rather weak and ineffectual adjunct to swordplay if magic-users were to become a class of player- character.
The basic assumption, then, was that D&D magic worked on a "Vancian" system and if used correctly would be a highly powerful and effective force. There are also four basic parts to magic: The verbal or uttered spell, the somatic or physical movement required for the conjuration, the psychic or mental attitude necessary to cast the spell, and the material adjuncts by which the spell, can be completed (to cite an obvious example, water to raise a water elemental). It was assumed that the D&D spell would be primarily verbal, although in some instances the spell would require some somatic component also (a fire ball being an outstanding example). The psychic perse would play little part in the basic magic system, but a corollary, mnemonics, would. The least part of magic would be the material aids required, and most of those considered stored or aided magic, so as to enable its more immediate employment, rather than serving to prolong spell casting time or encumber the player using these aids. Before exploring the whys and wherefores of these decisions, a further word regarding magical results must be said.
Spells do various things, and just what they do is an important consideration, for some order of effect in regard to the game would have to be determined. Magic purports to have these sorts of effects: 1) the alteration of existing substance (including its transposition or dissolution); 2) the creation of new substance; 3) the changing of normal functions of mind and/or body; 4) the addition of new functions to mind and/or body; 5) summon and/or command existing entities; and 6) create new entities. In considering these functions, comparatively weak and strong spells could be devised from any one of the six. Knowing the parameters within which the work was to be done then enabled the creation of the system.
四种主要的魔法类型是那些需要长时间召唤的系统,这些系统需要大量的随身物品作为辅助工具(如莎士比亚在《麦克白》中使用的,或者由罗伯特·e·霍华德(Robert e . Howard)在他的《柯南》中所写),相对较短的口头咒语(在芬兰神话中或在杰克·万斯(Jack Vance)的精彩幻想中发现),超强力(如果不总是正确的话)魔法(在经典的“哈罗德·希亚”(Harold Shea)故事中,典型的“deCamp A”),以及普遍较弱和相对无效的魔法(就像J.R.R.托尔金(J.R.R. Tolkien)的作品中所发现的那样)。在游戏中,魔术的使用是最吸引人的方面之一,而且在游戏系统中,很明显,它的工作不可能在复杂的、耗时的飞机上使用,任何超过它的都可以作为一个相当弱的、无效的附加,如果magic用户成为一种玩家角色的话。
Because the magic-using D&D player would have to be able to operate competitively with fellow players who relied on other forms of attack during the course of adventures, the already mentioned "Vancian" system was used as a basis, and spelts of various sorts were carefully selected. Note, however, that they were selected within the framework of D&D competition primarily, and some relatively powerful spells were apportioned lo lower levels of magic use. Charm Person and Sleep at 1st level are outstanding examples. The effect of some spells was set to reflect the level of the magic-user employing them. Many of the spells were developed for specific use in dungeon expeditions or during wilderness adventures. A few — mostly drawn from CHAINMAIL — were included with the table top battle in mind. All such spells were assumed to be of such a nature so that no less than three of the four basic components of magic were required in their use. All spells were assumed to have a verbal component. Each and every spell (not found on a scroll or otherwise contained in. or on. some magical device) would be absolutely mnemonic, magic-users would have to memorize the spells they wished to have available, and when a particular spell was recalled and its other parts enacted, then the memory would be gone and the spell no longer available until it was re-memorized (thus the magic-users' spell books!). Most spells were also envisioned as containing a slight somatic and/or material component. whether in the preparation of a small packet of magical or ordinary compounds lo be used when the spell was spoken or as various gestures to be made when the enchantment was uttered.
Magic-use was thereby to be powerful enough to enable its followers to compete with any other type of player-character, and yet the use of magic would not be so great as to make those using it overshadow all others.
This was the conception, but in practice it did not work out as planned. Primarily at fault is the game itself which does not carefully explain the reasoning behind the magic system. Also, the various magic items for employment by magic- users tend to make them too powerful in relation to other classes (although the GREYHAWK supplement took steps to correct this somewhat). The problem is further compounded by the original misconceptions of how magic worked in D L D — misconceptions held by many players. The principal error here is that the one 1st level spell allowable to a 1st level magic-user could be used endlessly (or perhaps at frequent intervals) without the magic-user having to spend time and effort re-memorizing and preparing again after the single usage. Many players also originally thought scrolls containing spells could be reused as often as desired. Finally, many dungeonmasters geared their campaigns to the level of TV giveaway shows, with gold pouring into players' purses like water and magical rewards strapped to the backs of lowly rats. This latter allowed their players to progress far too rapidly and go far beyond the bounds of D&D's competition scope — magic- users. fighters, clerics and all.
To further compound the difficulties, many dungeon-masters and players, upon learning of the more restrictive intent of the rules, balked. They enjoyed the comic book characters, incredible spells, and stratospheric levels of their way of playing. Well and good. D&D is. if nothing else, a free-form game system, and it was designed with great variation between campaigns to be allowed for — nay. encouraged! Of course, there are some variations which are so far removed from the original framework as to be totally irreconcilable with D&D: these have become games of other sorts and not a concern of this article. On the other hand there are many campaigns which were scrapped and begun afresh after their dungeon- masters consulted us or after they read other articles pertaining to the play otD&D as conceived by its authors — just as there will probably be some dungeonmasters ready to try again after reading this far. It is for all of these referees and their players, as well as those who have played the game pretty much as was desired but were never quite positive that you were actually doing so. that the foregoing was written.
因此,magic - use的功能强大到足以让它的追随者与任何其他类型的玩家角色竞争,然而,使用魔法并不能使使用它的人超过其他任何类型的玩家。
这是一个概念,但实际上并没有按照计划进行。最主要的错误是游戏本身,它没有仔细地解释魔法系统背后的原因。此外,魔法的各种魔法物品——使用者倾向于使它们在与其他类的关系上过于强大(尽管GREYHAWK补充剂采取了一些措施来纠正这一点)。这一问题进一步加剧了最初的错误观念,即许多玩家持有的D - D -错误观念。这里的主要错误是,在第一级的魔法允许下,第一级的魔法用户可以被无休止地使用(或者频繁地使用),而没有魔法用户需要花费时间和精力在单一使用后重新记忆和准备。许多玩家最初认为包含法术的卷轴可以重复使用。最后,许多dungeonmasters将他们的运动与电视节目的水平进行了调整,黄金像水一样涌入玩家的钱包里,在小老鼠的背上绑上了神奇的奖励。后一种情况允许他们的玩家进步得太快,远远超出了d&d的竞争范围——魔法用户的范围。战士,牧师。
The logic behind it all was drawn from game balance as much as from anything else. Fighters have (heir strength, weapons, and armor lo aid them in their competition. Magic-users must rely upon their spells, as they hare virtually no weaponry or armor to protect them. Clerics combine some of the advantages of the other two classes. The new class, thieves, have the basic advantage of stealthful actions with some additions in order for them to successfully operate on a plane with other character types. If magic is unrestrained in the campaign. D&D quickly degenerates into a weird wizard show where players get bored quickly, or the referee is forced to change the game into a new framework which will accommodate what he has created by way of player-characters. It is the opinion of this writer that the most desirable game is one in which the various character types are able to compete with each other as relative equals, for that will maintain freshness in the campaign (providing that advancement is slow and there is always some new goal to strive for).
This brings up the subject of new spells. The basic system allows for the players to create new spells for themselves at the option of the referee. It is certain that new spells will be added to the game system as the need arises, particularly with regard to new classes or sub-classes of characters or simply to Fill in some needed gap. The creation of an endless number of more powerful spells is not desirable in the existing game system, and there is no intention of publishing 10th or higher level spells. As was said in a previous article, if character level progression is geared to the game system, it should take years for any magic-user to attain a level where the use of 9th level spells is possible!
As a last word regarding this subject, this D&D magic system explanation also serves another purpose. There should now be no doubt in dungeonmasters’ minds with regard to the effect of a silence spell on a magic-user, or what will happen to the poor wizard caught in a mess of webs. They will know that a magic mouth is basically useless as a spell caster — with the exception of those spells which are based only on the verbal component of the spell. When an enterprising player tries a wizard lock on somebody's or something's mouth he will not be prone to stretch the guidelines and allow it. Magic is great. Magic is powerful. But it should be kept great and powerful in relation to its game environment. That means all the magic-users who have been coasting along with special dispensations from the dungeonmaster may soon have to get out there and root with the rest of the players or lie down and die.
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #24 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:06:32 »

What the game is; where it’s going
“Winning no more applies to a D&D game than it does to real life. The successful DMs and players gain renown via their campaigns or their superior characters. To enthusiasts of the game, this is far more satisfying than triumphing in a single game or whole series of games .“
From issue #22 February 1979

The DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game pioneered role-playing in the gaming hobby. It brought fantasy before hobbyists, and it set before them a game-form most had never heard of. Perhaps 150,000 persons now play the game, but it was by no means an instant success. The first 1,000 boxed sets, assembled and labeled by hand, took eleven months to sell (and Tactical Studies Rules was thrilled). Finally, a third printing of 2,000 sold in five months. So from January 1974 to December 1975, only 4,000 sets of the original version of the game were in circulation. (Of course, I have no way of knowing how many pirated copies were in existence; some estimates place the figure at about 20% of the total sales, some as high as 50%. In any case, 5,000 or 6,000 sets was certainly nothing to set the gaming world on fire, or was it?) Today the Basic Set sells 4,000 copies per month, and the sales graph is upwards.
A month has not gone by in the last two years when I haven't been interviewed by one or more newspaper writers or independent journalists who want to know all about the D&D® game and the concepts behind it. I have likewise been interviewed by radio and TV news media, generally for the same reason. At the risk of claiming too much for the game, I have lately taken to likening the whole to Aristotle’s Poetics, carrying the analogy to even more ridiculous heights by stating that each Dungeon Master uses the rules to become a playwrite (hopefully one of Shakespearean stature), scripting only plot outlines however, and the players become the thespians.
Before incredulity slackens so as to allow the interviewer to become hostile, I hasten to add that the analogy applies only to the basic parts of the whole pastime, not to the actual merits of the game, its DMs, or its players. If you consider the game, the analogy is actually quite apt. The DUNGEONS & DRAGONS game is like none other in that it requires the game master to create part or all of a fantasy world. Players must then become personae in this place and interact with the other populace. This is, of course, a tall order for all concerned — rules, DM, and players alike.
Relating a basic adventure, an episodic game session in the campaign, to a trip in an underground labyrinth does help the uninitiated interviewers to understand the simplest D&D fundamentals — discover an unknown area, move around in it by means of descriptive narration from the Dungeon Master, overcome whatever obstacles are there (traps, problems, monsters), and return with whatever has been gained during the course of the whole. The DM takes the part of everything in this fantasy world which is not operated by a player. While this should not mean it is then a game of DM versus the players, it does mean that it is a co-operative game where players must interact successfully amongst themselves first, and non-hostile portions of the campaign milieu thereafter, in order to be successful. The Dungeon Masters incidentally against the players when he or she is operating that part of the “world" which is hostile, or potentially so, but in general the referee must be disinterested.
At about this point I am always asked: “Well, then, how do you win? Who wins?!" The answer is: Everybody — providing that the game is well run. The DM gets the satisfaction of testing his abilities against those of the players, the fun of taking the non-player parts, and the accolades of participants when a particularly well-done adventure or series has been completed. Players enjoy the challenges of each situation and have the prospect of continuing adventures and puzzles to confront them, each with his or her game persona. Thus, all who take part in the campaign get something besides a momentary diversion. Winning no more applies to a D&D game than it does to real life. The successful DMs and players gain renown via their campaigns or their superior characters. To enthusiasts of the game, this is far more satisfying than triumphing in a single game or whole series of games.
Simply stated, the D&D game is a multi-player game of fantasy role-playing, where the rules give systems of resolution for common game occurrences, lists and explanations of things which are not actual (monsters, spells, magic items, etc.), systems for interaction, and suggestions as to how to put this into the campaign, i.e. create the milieu. Once begun, the campaign continues until the DM and/or all of the players decide it should end. As with any exercise in fantasy, it requires suspension of disbelief. Those who find the game interesting will soon enough thereafter create their own sort of involvement and belief. But why is such a game (and similar fantasy role-playing games, for that matter) so popular? What is its appeal?
在这一点上,我总是被问到:“那么,你是怎么赢的?”谁赢了? !答案是:每个人——只要这个游戏运行良好。DM获得了测试他的能力的满足感,这是对球员的能力的测试,对非球员部分的乐趣,以及当一个特别出色的冒险或系列已经完成时,参与者的荣誉。玩家可以享受每一种情况下的挑战,并有可能继续冒险和玩拼图游戏,每个人都有自己的游戏角色。因此,参加竞选活动的人除了一时的消遣之外,还能得到一些东西。在D&D游戏中获胜并不比在现实生活中更有效。成功的DMs和玩家通过他们的战役或他们的优秀的人物获得了名声。对游戏爱好者来说,这比在一个游戏或整个系列游戏中获胜要令人满意得多。
Our modern world has few, if any, frontiers. We can no longer escape to the frontier of the West, explore darkest Africa, sail to the South Seas. Even Alaska and the Amazon jungles will soon be lost as wild frontier areas. Furthermore, adventures are not generally possible anymore. The frontiers are receding into memories, modern communications make all of the world available to casual travellers, and the most backward places are becoming more and more civilized. Certainly it is still possible to go scuba diving, mountain climbing, auto racing, skydiving, and so on. These are expensive and risky endeavors, for no real purpose in most cases. One can also have adventures as a criminal, or possibly as an agent of the government (if one is sufficiently qualified), but the former is distasteful to say the least, and the latter is most unlikely. Americans, with more leisure time today than ever, crave entertainment. Some desire adventure and excitement. Obviously, various entertainment media are doing big business — TV, motion pictures, spectator sports, recreational vehicles, sporting goods, book publishers, and game manufacturers are all growing. “Escape fiction" sells better today than ever, and witness the success of the recent science-fiction and fantasy films.
Looking toward outer space and the future for new frontiers and adventure is logical. The universe has fascinated mankind since recorded history, and today it seems quite probable that within a few decades numbers of us will live off of the earth, and in a century or so we will travel to the stars. Perhaps there will be frontiers and adventure enough then for all who care to test their mettle. But it is no less surprising for us to look into the realms of fantasy for imagined adventure. Most literate people grow up on a diet of fairy tales, Walt Disney, and comic-book superheroes. We somehow relate to stories of young princes going out into the world to seek their fortune, of knights rescuing maidens in distress and slaying dragons, of dealings with wicked magicians and evil witches. The myth of all peoples contain great stocks of such fantasy lore. If nothing else, the desire to believe in such seems to be innate in humanity. Whether or not there are parallel worlds or places where fantastic creatures actually live and magic works is not germane, for most of us are familiar with the concepts as if they were actual, and we have a desire to become involved, if only vicariously, amongst such heroic epics of magic and monsters. It is therefore scarcely surprising that a game which directly involves participants in a make- believe world of just such a nature should prove popular; and had I reasoned out the enthusiasm it roused amongst the first few who played it, it would have been evident that the D&D game was destined to become very popular indeed. (Naturally, hindsight is usually a 20/20 proposition, and the fact is, the game was originally written for a small audience of devoted miniatures players....)
If millions take to the fantasy world of J.R.R. Tolkien, and nearly as many follow the heroic feats of Conan, the market potential of a game system which provides participants with a pastime which creates play resembling these adventuresome worlds and their inhabitants is bounded only by its accessibility. Access has two prominent aspects: Availability is the first; that is, are potential players informed of the fact that the game exists, and are they able to physically obtain it? Difficulty is the second, for if once obtained the game is so abstruse as to be playable only by persons with intelligence far above the norm, or if the game demands a volume of preliminary work which is prohibitive forthe normal individual, this will be recognized and the offering will be shunned even if it is available. The D&D system failed on both counts, and still its following grew. Today we are putting the D&D game onto the track where it is envisioned it will have both maximum availability and minimum difficulty. This is best illustrated in the D&D Basic Set.
Well over two years ago we recognized that there was a need for an introductory form of the game. In 1977 the colorfully boxed Basic Set was published. It contained simplified, more clearly written rules, dungeon geomorphs, selections of monsters and treasures to place in these dungeons, and a set of polyhedra dice — in short, all that a group of beginning players need to start play with relative ease. Later editions have cleaned up most of the flaws in the first, and the newest will do away with the geomorphs and the list of monsters and treasures in favor of a complete basic module, so that difficulty will be reduced even further.
This should broaden the game’s appeal to a base in the millions, and then the major factor becomes availability. Popular demand always increases availability, and the D&D game has been blessed by its enthusiasts most generously in this regard. Coupled with the work being done by TSR to publicize and promote the game, the availability factor will also be maximized over the next few years. Finally, to maintain interest, a series of new and interesting modular dungeon and outdoor scenarios, as well as more playing aids, will be made available periodically. The number of D&D players should certainly continue to mushroom for several years.

Fanatical game hobbyists often express the opinion that the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS system will be an ever-expanding, always improving one. TSR and I see it a bit differently. Currently, the D&D concept is moving in two directions. There is the “Original” game system and the new ADVANCED D&D® system. New participants can move from the “Basic Set" into either form without undue difficulty — especially as playing aid offerings become more numerous, and that is in process now. Americans have somehow come to equate change with improvement. Somehow the school of continuing evolution has conceived that the D&D system can go on in a state of flux, each new version "new and improved!" From a standpoint of sales, I beam broadly at the very thought of an unending string of new, improved, super, energized, versions of the game being hyped to the loyal followers of the gaming hobby in general and role-playing fantasy games in particular. As a game designer I do not agree, particularly as a gamer who began with chess. The original could benefit from a careful reorganization and expansion to clarify things, and this might be done at some future time. As all of the AD&D™ system is not written yet, it is a bit early for prognostication, but I envision only minor expansions and some rules amending on a gradual, edition to edition, basis. When you have a fine product, it is time to let well enough alone. I do not believe that hobbyists and casual players should be continually barraged with new rules, new systems, and new drains on their purses. Certainly there will be changes, for the game is not perfect; but I do not believe the game is so imperfect as to require constant improvement.
Does this mean that the game will be at a dead end when the last of the AD&D books is published? Hardly! Modules and similar material will continue to be released so as to make the DM’s task easier and his or her campaign better. Quite frankly, the appeal of the D&D game rests principally upon the broad shoulders of the hard-working Dungeon Masters. The rules never need improvement if the DM is doing a proper job, but of course he or she can do so only if the rules are sufficient to allow this. With refined rules and modular additions, all aspects of a long-lived and exciting campaign will unquestionably be there for the DM to employ. Will the D&D system dead-end when its novelty dies? That is impossible to answer. It is my personal opinion that the game form is a classic which is of the same stamp as chess and Monopoly, time will be the judge. No doubt there is a limit to the appeal of the game in any of its current forms. If tens of millions play a relatively simple, social sort of a game such as Monopoly, it is a sure thing a far more difficult activity such as the D&D game will have a much more limited audience. Since the game cannot be simplified beyond a certain point, we look to another means of popularizing it.
A D&D game can be played on a computer. Computers are most certainly a big aspect of the near future, particularly the home computer. Non-programmable computer games are already making big inroads in the toy and hobby market. They will grow still more, and soon programmable games will join this trend. D&D program cassettes plugged into a home computer would obviate the need for a DM or other players. The labor of setting up a campaign or the necessity of having a fairly large group to play in it would be removed; graphic display would be exciting; and the computer would slave away doing the record work and mechanics necessary to the game, giving nearly instantaneous results to the player or players. Computerization has other benefits. Such games would not destroy the human-run campaign but would supplement game participation.
All that being so, the reader may justifiably inquire as to the purpose of this column. Well, since I make no claim to perfection, no such claim can be made for the AD&D or D&D games. This column will cover controversial rules or systems, problem and so-called problem areas, and consider new material as well. If the games are not to be continually changing and “evolving,” neither is it envisioned that they have reached such a state of perfection so as to become immutable. What appears herein is discussion that will sometimes lead to alteration, amendment, or expansion of one or the other system. Initially, what you read here will be direct from me, but all DMs — and players also — are invited to submit articles of high calibre. A glance at the introductory sections of all of the works comprising the D&D and AD&D systems shows many individuals contributed to the designs. The list in the AD&D Dungeon Masters Guide is longer still. All individuals and the audience at large are cordially invited to submit their thoughts and opinions on pertinent matters. If I am not to be “the great god Gygax," a claim I never made nor supported, there must be input which presents argumentation and systems which are meaningful alternatives to replace or augment existing rules and systems. This is not to say that anyone’s favorite variant, even if well designed, is likely to become a D&D or AD&D product, but at worst reasons for why it is unacceptable will be given, and the possible results could be a major change in the game. So, here is your forum.
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #25 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:07:31 »

Much about melee

“Melee in the D&D system is certainly a crucial factor, and it must not be warped at the risk of spoiling the whole game . Likewise , it is not unrealistic — if there is such a thing as ”realism“ in a game . . . filled with the unreal assumptions of dragons, magic spells, and so on. ”
“Furthermore , the D&D game is a role-playing campaign where much of the real enjoyment for participants comes from the gradual development of the game personae and their continuing exploits, whether successes or failures.”
From issue #24 April 1979

There is some controversy regarding the system of resolving individual battles used in the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game and the somewhat similar melee system which is part of the ADVANCED D&D® rules. The meat of the D&D® system is the concept of pure adventure, the challenge of the unknown, facing the unexpected and overcoming all obstacles. At times this requires combat with spells, missiles, and hand-to-hand fighting. How crucial to the game as a whole is the melee? What part should it play? Is “realism” an important consideration?
To put the whole matter into perspective, it is necessary to point out that there is probably only a small percentage of the whole concerned with possible shortcomings in the melee system, but even 1% to perhaps 5% of an audience of well over 100,000 enthusiasts is too large a number to be ignored. To the majority who do not have problems with the rationale of fantasy melee as presented in the D&D rules, what follows will serve to strengthen your understanding of the processes and their relationship to the whole game. For those who doubt the validity of D&D combat systems, the expostulation will at least demonstrate the logic of the systems, and perhaps justify them to the extent that you will be able to use them with complete assurance that they are faithful representations of the combat potential of the figures concerned.
There can be no question as to the central theme of the game. It is the creation and development of the game persona, the fantastic player character who is to interact with his or her environment — hopefully to develop into a commanding figure in the milieu. In order to do so, the player character must undergo a continuing series of activities which are dictated by the campaign at large and the Dungeon Master in particular. Interaction can be the mundane affairs of food, equipment and shelter, or it can be dealing with non-player characters in only slightly less routine things such as hiring men-at-arms, treating with local officials, and so on. But from even these everyday affairs can develop adventures, and adventurers are, of course, the meat of the D&D system; for it is by means of adventuring that player characters gain acumen and the wealth and wherewithal to increase in ability level. The experience, actual as well as that awarded by the DM, is gained in the course of successive adventures, and in the context of those adventures it is most common to engage in combat.
Hacking and slewing should not, of course, be the first refuge of the beleaguered D&D player, let alone his or her initial resort when confronted with a problem situation. Naturally enough, a well run campaign will offer a sufficient number of alternatives as well as situations which encourage thinking, negotiation, and alternatives to physical force, by means of careful prompting or object lessons in the negative form. Aside from this, however, combat and melee will certainly occupy a considerable amount of time during any given adventure, at least on the average. Spell and missile combat do not consume any appreciable amount of time, but as they are also often a part of an overall melee, these factors must be considered along with hand-to-hand fighting.
What must be simulated in melee combat are the thrusts and blows (smashing and cutting) of weapons wielded as well as the natural body weaponry of monsters — teeth, claws, and so forth. Individual combat of this sort can be made exceptionally detailed by inclusion of such factors as armor, weapon(s), reflex speed, agility, position of weapon (left or right hand or both), training, strength, height, weight, tactics chosen (attack, defend, or a combination), location of successive blows, and results of injury to specific areas. If, in fact, the D&D game was a simulation of hand-to-hand combat utilizing miniature figurines, such detail would be highly desirable. The game is one of adventure, though, and combats of a protracted nature (several hours minimum of six or more player characters are considered involved against one or more opponents each) are undesirable, as the majority of participants are most definitely not miniature battle game enthusiasts. Time could be reduced considerably by the inclusion of such factors as death blows — a kill at a single stroke, exceptionally high amounts of damage — or perhaps a modified form of killing at a single stroke, featuring specific hit location coupled with specific body hit points, and special results from hits — unconsciousness, loss of member, incapacitation of member, etc.
Close simulation of actual hand-to-hand combat and inclusion of immediate-result strokes have overall disadvantages from the standpoint of the game as a whole. Obviously, much of the excitement and action is not found in melee, and even shortening the process by adding in death strokes and the like causes undue emphasis on such combat. Furthermore, the D&D game is a role-playing campaign where much of the real enjoyment for participants comes from the gradual development of the game personae and their continuing exploits, whether successes or failures. In a system already fraught with numberless possibilities of instant death — spells, poison, breath and gaze weapons, and traps — it is too much to force players to face yet another. Melee combat is nearly certain to be a part of each and every adventure. It has sufficient element of danger to make the possibility of character death highly likely, but it also allows the wise to withdraw if things get too tough —most of the time, in any case.
The D&D combat systems are not all that “unrealistic" either, as will be discussed hereafter. The systems are designed to provide relative speed of resolution without either bogging down the referee in a morass of paperwork or giving high probability of death to participants' personae. Certainly, the longer and more involved the melee procedure, the more work and boredom for the Dungeon Master, while fast systems are fun but deadly to player characters (if such systems are challenging and equitable) and tend to discourage participants from long-term commitment to a campaign, for they cannot relate to a world in which they are but the briefest of candles, so to speak.
In order to minutely examine the combat system as used in the AD&D™ game, an example of play is appropriate. Consider a party of adventurers trekking through a dungeon’s 10-footwide corridor when they come upon a chamber housing a troop of gnoll guards. Let us assume that our party of adventurers is both well balanced in character race and class. They have a dwarf, a gnome, and a halfling in the front rank. Behind them are two half-elves. The last rank consists of three humans. Although there are eight characters, all of them are able to take an active part in the coming engagement; spells and missiles can be discharged from the rear or middle rows. The center- rank characters will also be able to engage in hand-to-hand combat if they have equipped themselves with spears or thrusting pole arms which are of a size useful in the surroundings. The front rank can initially use spells or missiles and then engage in melee with center-rank support, assuming that the party was not surprised. Whether or not any exchange of missiles and spells takes place is immaterial to the example, for it is melee which is the activity in question. Let us then move on to where the adventurers are locked in combat with the gnolls.
Each melee round is considered to be a one-minute period, with a further division into ten segments of six seconds each for determination of missile fire, spell casting and the striking of multiple telling blows. Note that during the course of a round there are assumed to be a number of parries, feints, and non-telling attacks made by opponents. The one (or several) dice roll (or rolls) made for each adversary, however, determines if a telling attack is made. If there is a hit indicated, some damage has been done; if a miss is rolled, then the opponent managed to block or avoid the attack.
If the participants picture the melee as somewhat analogous to a boxing match, they will have a correct grasp of the rationale used in designing the melee system. During the course of a melee round there is movement, there are many attacks which do not score, and each "to hit” roll indicates that there is an opening which may or may not allow a telling attack. In a recent letter, Don Turnbull stated that he envisioned that three sorts of attacks were continually taking place during melee:
1)   attacks which had no chance of hitting, including feints, parries, and the like;
2)   attacks which had a chance of doing damage but which missed as indicated by the die roll; and
3)   attacks which were telling as indicated by the die roll and subsequent damage determination.
This is a correct summation of what the D&D melee procedure subsumes. Note that the skill factor of higher-level fighters — as well as natural abilities and/or the speed of some monsters — allows more than one opportunity per melee round of scoring a telling attack, as those character and creature types are more able to take advantage of openings left by adversaries during the course of sparring, Similarly, zero-level men, and monsters under one full hit die, are considered as being less able to defend; thus, opponents of two or more levels or hit dice are able to get in one telling blow for each such level or hit die.
如果参与者认为近战与拳击比赛有点类似,他们就会正确地掌握设计近战系统的基本原理。在近战回合的过程中,有许多攻击没有得分,每一个“命中”都表明有一个可能或不允许有说服力的攻击。在最近的一封信中,唐·特恩布尔(Don Turnbull)表示,他设想在肉搏中会持续发生三种攻击:
This melee system also hinges on the number of hit points assigned to characters. As I have repeatedly pointed out, if a rhinoceros can take a maximum amount of damage equal to eight or nine eight-sided dice, a maximum of 64 or 72 hit points of damage to kill, it is positively absurd to assume that an 8th-level fighter with average scores on his or her hit dice and an 18 constitution, thus having 76 hit points, can physically withstand more punishment than a rhino before being killed. Hit points are a combination of actual physical constitution, skill at the avoidance of taking real physical damage, luck and/or magical or divine factors. Ten points of damage dealt to a rhino indicates a considerable wound, while the same damage sustained by the 8th-level fighter indicates a near miss, a slight wound, and a bit of luck used up, a bit of fatigue piling up against his or her skill at avoiding the fatal cut or thrust. So even when a hit is scored in melee combat, it is more often than not a grazing blow, a mere light wound which would have been fatal (or nearly so) to a lesser mortal. If sufficient numbers of such wounds accrue to the character, however, stamina, skill, and luck will eventually run out, and an attack will strike home....
I am firmly convinced that this system is superior to all others so far conceived and published. It reflects actual combat reasonably, for weaponry, armor (protection and speed and magical factors), and skill level, and allows for a limited amount of choice as to attacking or defending. It does not require participants to keep track of more than a minimal amount of information, it is quite fast, and it does not place undue burden upon the Dungeon Master. It allows those involved in combat to opt to retire if they are taking too much damage, although this does not necessarily guarantee that they will succeed or that the opponents will not strike a teling blow prior to such retreat. Means of dealing fatal damage at a single stroke or in a single melee routine are kept to a minimum commensurate with the excitement level of the system. Poison, weapons which deliver a fatal blow, etc., are rare or obvious. Thus, participants know that a giant snake or scorpion can fell them with a single strike with poison; they are aware that a dragon or a 12-headed hydra or a cloud giant can deliver considerable amounts of damage when they succeed in striking; and they also are aware that it is quite unlikely that an opponent will have a sword of sharpness, a vorpal blade, or some similarly deadly weapon. Melee, then, albeit a common enough occurrence, is a calculated risk which participants can usually determine before engaging in as to their likelihood of success; and even if the hazards are found to be too severe, they can often retract their characters to fight again another day.
Of course, everyone will not be satisfied with the combat system as presented. If DM and players desire a more complex and time-consuming method of determining melee combat, or if they wish a more detailed but shorter system, who can say them nay?
However, care must be taken to make certain that the net effect is the same as if the correct system had been employed, or else the melee will become imbalanced. If combat is distorted to favor the player characters, they will rise in experience levels too rapidly, and participants will become bored with a game which offers no real challenge and whose results are always a foregone conclusion. If melee is changed to favor the adversaries of player characters, such as by inclusion of extra or special damage when a high number is rolled on a “to hit” die, the net result will also be a loss of interest in the campaign. How does a rule for double damage on a die roll of 20 favor monsters and spoil a campaign? If only players are allowed such extra damage, then the former case of imbalance in favor of the players over their adversaries is in effect. If monsters are allowed such a benefit, it means the chances of surviving a melee, or withdrawing from combat if things are not going well, are sharply reduced. That means that character survival will be less likely. If players cannot develop and identify with a long- lived character, they will lose interest in the game. Terry Kuntz developed a system which allowed for telling strokes in an unpublished game he developed to recreate the epic adventures of Robin Hood et al. To mitigate against the possible loss at a single stroke, he also included a saving throw which allowed avoidance of such death blows, and the chance of making a successful saving throw increased as the character successfully engaged in combats, i.e. gained experience. This sort of approach is obviously possible, but it requires a highly competent designer to develop.
然而,必须注意确保净效果与使用正确的系统相同,否则近战就会变得不平衡。如果战斗被扭曲到有利于玩家角色,他们将会在经验水平上迅速上升,而参与者将会对一场没有真正挑战的游戏感到厌烦,结果永远是预料之中的结果。如果肉搏被改变成有利于玩家角色的对手,比如当一个高数值被打到“命中”骰子时,将额外的或特殊的伤害包含在内,那么最终的结果也将是对比赛失去兴趣。“骰子结果在20以上便造成双倍伤害”的规则是如何帮助怪物和破坏一个战役的?如果只有球员被允许这样的额外的伤害,那么以前的不平衡的球员对他们的对手的支持是有效的。如果怪物能得到这样的好处,那就意味着在近战中幸存下来的机会,或者如果事情进展不顺利,从战斗中撤退的几率会大大降低。这意味着角色的生存将不太可能。如果玩家不能开发和识别一个长期存在的角色,他们就会对游戏失去兴趣。特里·昆茨(Terry Kuntz)开发了一种系统,可以在未出版的游戏中讲述笔画,以再现罗宾汉(Robin Hood)等人的史诗冒险故事。为了减轻一次中风可能造成的损失,他还提出了一种拯救方案,可以避免这样的死亡打击,而且成功的挽救生命的机会增加了,因为角色成功地参与了战斗,也就是获得了经验。这种方法显然是可行的,但是需要一个非常称职的设计人员来开发。
Melee in the D&D system is certainly a crucial factor, and it must not be warped at the risk of spoiling the whole game. Likewise, it is not unrealistic — if there is such a thing as "realism” in a game, particularly a game filled with the unreal assumptions of dragons, magic spells, and so on. The D&D melee combat system subsumes all sorts of variable factors in a system which must deal with imaginary monsters, magic- endowed weaponry, and make-believe characters and abilities. It does so in the form as to allow referees to handle the affair as rapidly as possible, while keeping balance between player characters and opponents, and still allowing the players the chance of withdrawing their characters if the going gets too rough. As melee combat is so common an occurrence during the course of each adventure, brevity, equitability, and options must be carefully balanced.
Someone recently asked how I could include a rule regarding weapons proficiency in the AD&D rules after decrying what they viewed as a similar system: bonuses for expertise with weapons. The AD&D system, in fact, penalizes characters for using weapons which they do not have expertise with. Obviously, this is entirely different in its effect upon combat. Penalties do not change the balance between character and adversary, for the player can always opt to use non-penalized weapons for his or her character.
It also makes the game more challenging by further defining differences in character classes and causing certain weapons to be more desirable than others: i.e., will the magic hammer+1 be useful to the cleric? It likewise adds choices. All this, rather than offering still another method whereby characters can more easily defeat opponents and have less challenge. How can one be mistaken as a variation of the other? The answer there is that the results of the two systems were not reflected upon. With a more perfect understanding of the combat system and its purposes, the inquirer will certainly be able to reason the thing through without difficulty and avoid spoiling the game in the name of “realism."
Realism does have a function in the D&D system, of course. It is the tool of the DM who is confronted by a situation which is not covered in the rules. With the number of variables involved in a game such as this, there is no possibility of avoiding situations which are not spelled out in the book. The spirit of the rules can be a guideline, as can the overall aim of rules which apply to general cases, but when a specific situation arises, judgement must often come into play.
Sean Cleary commented on this in a letter about common misunderstandings and difficulties encountered by the DM. While the AD&D system is absolutely clear, for example, that clerics have but one chance to attempt to turn undead, and that those struck by undead have no saving throw (life level is drained!), it was impossible to include all the minutiae in the rules. To illustrate further, consider the example of missile fire into a melee. Generally, the chances of hitting a friend instead of a foe is the ratio of the two in the melee. With small foes, the ratio is adjusted accordingly; i.e., two humans fighting four kobolds give about equal probabilities of hitting either. Huge foes make it almost impossible to strike a friend; i.e., aiming at a 12-foot-tall giant’s upper torso is quite unlikely to endanger the 6' tall human of a javelin of lightning bolts in a melee where a human and a giant are engaged. The missile strikes the giant; where does its stroke of lightning travel? Common sense and reality indicate that the angle of the javelin when it struck the giant will dictate that the stroke will travel in a straight line back along the shaft, and the rest is a matter of typical positions and angles — if the human was generally before the giant, and the javelin was thrown from behind the human, the trajectory of the missile will be a relatively straight line ending in the shaft of the weapon and indicating the course of the bolt of lightning backwards. The giant’s human opponent will not be struck by the stroke, but the lightning will most probably come close. Therefore, if the human is in met al armor, a saving throw should be made to determine if he or she takes half or no damage.
这也使得游戏更有挑战性通过进一步定义不同的角色类并使某些武器比其他的更可取,即。,魔锤+ 1对牧师有用吗?它也增加了选择。所有这些,而不是提供另一种方法,使角色更容易击败对手,减少挑战。一个人怎么可能被误认为是另一个的变体呢?答案是,这两个系统的结果没有被反映出来。通过对战斗系统及其目的的更完美的理解,问询者一定能够毫无困难地推理,并避免以“现实主义”的名义破坏游戏。
Sean Cleary在一封信中对DM所遇到的常见误解和困难进行了评论,而AD&D系统是绝对清楚的,例如,神职人员只有一次机会去尝试不死,而那些被亡灵袭击的人却没有得救的机会(生活水平被耗尽了!),在规则中不可能包含所有细节。为了进一步说明,考虑导弹射击近战的例子。一般来说,击中朋友而不是敌人的几率是两者在近战中的比例。与小的敌人,比率作相应调整;即两个人与四名狗头人作战的概率相等。巨大的敌人几乎不可能击中一个朋友;即,瞄准一个12英尺高的巨人的上半身,不太可能威胁到一个在近战中闪电的人,一个人和一个巨人正在交火。导弹击中了巨人;它的闪电行程在哪里?常识和现实表明,在击中巨人时标枪的角度将决定冲程沿轴沿直线行进,其余则是典型的位置和角度——如果人类通常在巨人面前,标枪从人身后扔出,导弹的轨迹将是一个相对直线的终点,在武器的轴上,指示着闪电的方向向后。巨人的人类对手不会被击中,但是闪电很可能会接近。因此,如果人类是金属盔甲,就应该进行一次豁免检定,以确定他或她是否受到了一半或没有伤害。
In like manner, reality can illustrate probabilities. If three husky players are placed shoulder to shoulder, distances added for armor, and additional spaces added for weapon play, the DM can estimate what activities can take place in a given amount of space. Determination of how many persons can pass through a door 5 feet wide can be made with relative ease — two can proceed carefully, but if two or three rush to pass through at the same time a momentary jam can occur. How long should the jam last? How long would people remain so wedged? With an added factor for inflexible pieces of plate mail, the answer is probably one or two segments of a round. Of course, during this period the jammed characters cannot attack or defend, so no shield protection or dexterity bonus to armor class would apply, and an arbitrary bonus of +4 could be given to any attackers (an arbitrary penalty of -4 on saving throws follows).
The melee systems used in the D&D rules are by no means sacrosanct. Changes can be made if they are done intelligently by a knowledgeable individual who thoroughly understands the whole design. Similarly, “realism" is a part of melee, for the DM must refer to it continually to adjudicate combat situations where no rules exist, and this handling is of utmost importance in maintaining a balanced melee procedure. With this truly important input from the referee, it is my firm belief that the D&D system of combat is not only adequate but actually unsurpassed by any rival so-called “improvement” and "realistic" methods. The latter add complication and unnecessary record-keeping, or otherwise distort the aim of a role-playing game —character survival and identification. What is foisted off on the gullible is typically a hodgepodge of arbitrary rulings which are claimed to give “realism” to a make-believe game. Within the scope of the whole game surrounding such systems, they might or might not work well enough, but seldom will these systems fit into a D&D campaign regardless of the engineering attempts of well-meaning referees.
The logic of the D&D melee systems is simple: They reasonably reflect fantastic combat and they work damn well from all standpoints. My advice is to leave well enough alone and accept the game for what it is. If you must have more detail in melee, switch to another game, for the combat portions of the D&D rules are integral, and unsuccessful attempts to change melee will result in spoiling the whole. Better to start fresh than to find that much time and effort has been wasted on a deadend variant.
以类似的方式,现实可以证明概率。如果三个哈士奇的玩家被放置在肩膀上,在装甲上增加距离,在武器游戏中增加额外的空间,DM可以估计在一定数量的空间中会发生什么活动。确定有多少人可以通过5英尺宽的门,可以相对轻松地完成——两个可以小心地进行,但是如果两到三次同时发生,就会发生暂时性的堵塞。果酱要持续多久?人们还能保持多久?对于不灵活的平板邮件来说,答案可能是一到两段。当然,在这段时间内,被卡住的角色不能攻击或防御,所以没有任何盾牌保护或敏捷性的加成将适用于装甲类,并且任意的+ 4的奖励可以被给予任何攻击者(一个任意的- 4的豁免罚球将跟随)。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #26 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:08:28 »

Character social class
“The D&D system is principally medieval in respect to the technology of its arms, armor, and military arts . Even assuming the DM wishes to adhere to a medieval milieu, many sorts of historic government forms and social orders are available.”
From issue #25 May 1979

Insertion of randomly determined social class is sometimes touted as an improvement or valuable addition to the existing D&D® game system. This sort of assertion seems valid on the face of it, for doesn’t the game benefit from assigning social classes to player characters? Isn’t a new dimension added when the rank of characters is known and considered? Before answering these questions, consider from whence the idea of social classes came. Professor M.A.R. Barker suggested social classes in the instruction manual for his monumental game, Empire of The Pet al Throne. The En Garde! game by Game Designers’ Workshop contains a lengthy treatment of social class and birth tables. Those who saw these works and decided to insert them into a D&D game failed to recognize one important singularity common to each of the aforementioned games which is not also possessed by either the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® or ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game. Both the world of Tekumel and that of the Three Musketeers et al have a complex and detailed social system already devised for them —one from the creativity of Prof. Barker, the other drawn from the history and legends of the period of Cardinal Richelieu, the early 17th century. The D&D system has no such cultural and social background.
Because the game does not have a predetermined culture and social structure, it is foolish to plug in a system which assigns a class rating to characters, unless the social class determination is very basic and non-specific, such as:
01-75 = character is of common background 76-95 = character is of aristocratic background 96-00 = character is of upper-class background Note that this sort of determination is not particularly useful, but it does not preordain a social order, either. Use of a more specific method causes the Dungeon Master to automatically accept a social order he or she may well have no desire to include in the campaign, for lack of knowledge or because of personal preference, or for any other reason. All of the social- distinction tables assume nobility or offices or professions which are not universal to all cultures. Use of such tables means that the DM has accepted the premise that his or her campaign, in fact, has such classes of nobles, professions, or offices.
The D&D and AD&D,“ rules represent fantastic medieval game systems. This does not just mean medieval in the European sense, although a campaign milieu based loosely upon mythical feudal Europe is not precluded. However, it could as well be set in the Near East or Far East, in a mythical place, in a mythos with an ancient-medieval atmosphere (such as Robert E. Howard's "Hyborean Age”), or just about any other desired milieu. The important factor is medieval technology, not necessarily feudalism with primogeniture, entail, and a Salic Law.
So-called birth tables are likewise of highly questionable value to DMs. These tables dictate to the Dungeon Master the rank of a male player character's birth (first, second, third, etc.). Again, the information is useful only when a culture which is basically feudal European (with primogeniture, entail, and Salic Laws regarding inheritance and titles) is considered. What if some other system is desired by the DM? Out the window with the birth tables, of course. Furthermore, even if a basically feudal society is presupposed in the campaign, of what use are birth tables which indicate that a player character is a first-born son of a ruling monarch or major noble? How can one conceive of such a personage going out adventuring at the risk of life and limb?! Has the individual abdicated his inheritance? Does he have amnesia? Where are his guards and retainers? Does his sire know what he is doing and where?
And all of this when a compatible social order is considered. Now envision use of such systems in a milieu which is neither feudal nor male-oriented — a hierarchy based on matriarchal principles, for example. Inclusion of such tables simply is unthinkable. For these very reasons, the D&D rules do not contain any systems of social classification, for the DM must first decide upon the culture and society of the campaign before any valid system can be designed, and there are far too many variables, so the task is strictly that of the DM. Any detailed system will impose its own order upon the campaign, as well as possibly forcing the DM to accept certain premises regarding player characters which do not fit into the scheme of the milieu.
《D&D和AD&D》,“规则代表了奇妙的中世纪游戏系统。这不仅意味着中世纪的欧洲意识,尽管一个基于神话的封建欧洲的运动环境并不排除。然而,它也可以被设置在近东或远东,在一个神话般的地方,在一个古老的中世纪氛围中(如罗伯特·e·霍华德的《Hyborean Age》),或者仅仅是关于任何其他想要的环境。重要的因素是中世纪的技术,而非必要的封建制度,包括长子继承权、继承权和法律。
For the sake of discussion, a number of government forms are given below. Several of these names were coined on the spot in order to describe types of governments which would be applicable in a D&D campaign milieu. The list is by no means exhaustive, and DMs should feel right in devising any sort of government which is reasonable within the parameters they have set for their particular “worlds.” Some possible forms of government are:
Anarchy — No formal government and no social classes.
Aristocracy — Government by a privileged class, this class so vested with power to rule being determined by virtually any circumstances of social or economic relevance.
Autocracy — Government which rests in self-derived, absolute power (an emperor or dictator is typically an autocrat, but the variations are many).
Bureaucracy — Government by department, rule being through the heads and chief administrators of the various departments of the system.
Confederacy—An alliance of possibly diverse governmental and social entities designed to promote the common weal.
Democracy — Government by the people, i.e. the established body of citizens, whether direct or through elected representatives.
Feodality — Feudal government where each authority derives authority and power from the one above and pledges fealty in like manner.
Geriatocracy — Government by the very old.
Gynarchy — Government by females only.
Hierarchy — Typically religious government with a structure somewhat similar to a feodality.
Magocracy — Government by professional magic- users.
Matriarchy — Government by the eldest females of whatever social units exist.
Militocracy — Government by military leaders and the armed forces in general.
Monarchy— Government by a single sovereign, usually hereditary, whether absolute in power or limited (such as the English monarchs were by the Magna Carta).
Oligarchy — Government by a few, usually absolute, rulers who are co-equal.
Pedocracy— Government by the learned and savants.
Plutocracy — Government by the wealthy.
Republic — A government of representatives of an established electorate.
Theocracy — God-rule, or rule by a god’s direct representative.
Let us assume a campaign in which the DM desires to develop play around two diverse portions of the campaign area, in this instance a portion of a continental land mass. The western nation is an oligarchy, while the east is fragmented into numbers of small feudal states which the oligarchy keeps in constant turmoil and warfare through clever machination. If player characters begin in an eastern land — more likely a place for adventuring — the social order will tend to be feudal or semi-feudal. Let us further assume they start out in a small province of a small kingdom ruled by an absolute monarch. Near equals to the king are the peers of the realm — dukes, princes, the greatest churchmen, marquises, counts (or earls), great churchmen, viscounts, barons, and lesser great churchmen. Considered separately are knights, for those given this status by the king are peers, though those with lesser knighthoods still rank amongst the nobility. Of course, nobles are not necessarily knighted; and knighthood, unlike titles of nobility, cannot be inherited.
Below the nobility and knights is a broader class of society, the gentry. Gentlemen, or the gentle born, are from families with land holdings or great wealth from mercantile activity and the like. The great offices of the kingdom — chancellor, marshal, constable, etc. — are drawn from the nobles; but the lesser officeholders — bailiffs, magistrates, justices, etc. — will be drawn from the gentry. Outstanding members of the class will be knighted. Exceptional knights will be elevated to the peerage. Civic leaders are typically of this class.

Next after the gentry are the freemen and artisans. This class is comprised of small landowners, tradesmen, and skilled craftsmen. This class furnishes candidates for very minor offices of the government and will be active in the affairs of small community government, usually serving under the leadership of a gentleman. Rarely will members of this class be knighted.
Below the freemen and artisans come the laborers. These are free folk, but they have neither land nor skills. They are tenant farmers, workers, and peddlers. These folk come under all of the upper classes, and they can aspire to become freemen, although there is little likelihood of this move occurring, since money and opportunity are scarce.
The lowest class is far and away the largest. It is made up of servants, bondsmen, and serfs. Servants and bondsmen can eventually move into the laborer class, but serfs can have no such hope. They are confined by law to work the land for their liege lord, be it nobleman, churchman, gentleman, or even freeman.
Player characters beginning in this social order will be of noble origin only if the DM desires to include this as a factor. Frankly, only the younger sons of any noble family would have any reason to become adventurers in most cases, for the firstborn will inherit the title and lands, and the second and third sons will certainly be provided for by means of clerical offices and government positions. Royal sons are always given titles and lands, regardless. If firstborn sons or royal family members become involved in a campaign as player characters, there must be a reason for this! Where will adventurers come from then? Not from the peasants, for they are probably absolutely forbidden to possess and bear arms, except when impressed into levied bands by their liege lords. Most adventurers will come from the laboring, freeman/artisan, or gentle class. The percentage of adventurers from each class is wholly dependent upon circumstances of the campaign, such as the largest urban area nearby, local and regional government, economic factors, etc. Let us suppose, for the sake of the example, that there is a 5% chance that a character will be from the lowest class, 10% chance of being from the laboring class, 30% from the class of freemen and artisans, and 50% from the gentle class. (More weight is given to the more privileged classes as they are more likely to be able to afford or otherwise have the means to have their sons — or daughters — given the background necessary to become an adventurer.) A 5% chance is also given for a lesser noble class background, for anything greater in percentage or higher in class would cause severe campaign anomalies. What does this all mean?
Well, starting funds and equipment must be adjusted to suit social class, although some weight can be given to the possibility of previous gains and losses to balance things out a bit. The majoreffect such social level determination would have is in the area of profession. All thieves and assassins could come only from the two lowest social classes. Clerics could come only from the levels above the two lowest. Magic-users could come only from the three highest levels. Paladins could come only from the highest class. In general, skills learned before becoming an adventurer are non-existent outside those peculiar to the profession of the character. For example, the son of a cheese maker will be sent away at a young age to receive a clerical education, or serve as an apprentice magic-user, without benefit of training in his father’s business. Each adventurer will have basic skills and knowledge to his or her profession and little else. Fighters are the sole possible exception, for their apprenticeship would typically come later and consist of service with a levied or militia force, then as a mercenary or recruited man-at-arms, and only thereafter as a 1st-level (Veteran) fighter. Therefore, consideration to the possibility of the character possessing one or more skills in addition to fighting ability is not unreasonable. These skills would be commensurate with social class and background based upon the milieu.
D&D was purposely sketchy and vague regarding government and social systems, for not only would any attempt at detailing such information be of considerable length, but it would also take away the prerogatives of the DM. The governments and social systems of a campaign should be devised and developed directly by each individual DM with an overview of his or her entire campaign, both the introductory milieu, and the eventual scope of the “world" and the universe (or "multiverse") in which it is set. To force any order upon the DM is to curtail the scope he or she has in devising such settings. This is not to say that it is wrong to have package offerings such as the Judges Guild City-State or TSR's WORLD OF GREYHAWK™ Fantasy World Setting. In such as these, there can be no question in the purchaser's mind as to what is offered, a milieu which is already developed. The D&D rules are distinct, however, in that they instruct the DM as to how the game is played and mention only in passing that an entire “world” must be developed to house the campaign. The design of that world was left as the purview of each individual DM. The D&D popularity explosion, and human nature too, has tended to promote an increasing acceptance of social class distinctions and tables without due consideration for long-term campaign effects. At the very least this has resulted in some very odd settings, and at worst it has promoted the early demise of campaigns — typically with attendant reorganization and restarting, with revised ideas and rules. In order to save DMs from this difficulty, a thorough treatment of society and government forms is needed. Space and time disallow any in-depth treatment, even assuming a qualified authority could be found to do a thesis on the topic for us. DMs must be prepared to research the topic for themselves and develop systems which suit their needs.
The D&D system is principally medieval in respect to the technology of its arms, armor, and military arts. Even assuming the DM wishes to adhere to a medieval milieu, many sorts of historic government forms and social orders are available —the English monarchy, the Swiss Confederation, the Holy Roman electorate, the Byzantine Empire, various Arab states, or even the horse nomads of central Asia can be used as models, and that is but a sampling. Consider some of these other possible forms which may or may not draw upon historical bases. Then create the societies you desire.
It is obvious, then, that only the individual Dungeon Master is capable of properly establishing the social order of his or her individual campaign. Active inclusion of this consideration will necessarily place some 1 u rather restrictions on player character choices as to profession, but this is not necessarily a drawback; and it might well be desirable in certain cases, as it will tend to encourage more fighters and reward them with bonuses in the area of knowledge and skills not possesed by other classes of adventurers. Inclusion of an overall social structure and classes is, of course, a necessity in any large campaign. This is not merely an embellishment; it is an integral part of the development of the milieu. Furthermore, inclusion of important personages from higher levels of society will tend to add greatly to the campaign in various ways. From taking service with a noble to rescuing a prince or princess, such interaction adds to the scope and meaning of the campaign.
What is also obvious is that social class is certainly not something to be added lightly, a factor to be sprinkled whimsically into the campaign or tossed into the whole by random chance. A well run and meaningful campaign will have an equally well devised social system and class determination according to forethought precepts. I suppose it is best summed up by the old adage, “Class will tell."...
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #27 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:08:56 »

“The ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® rules comprise a DIFFERENT game. Readers, please take note ! It is neither an expansion nor a revision of the old game : IT IS A NEW GAME . “
“ CHAINMAIL had proved to be highly successful primarily due to the pioneering steps in fantasy and individual gaming concepts ... Dave Arneson expanded upon these areas, and when he and I got together, the ideas necessary to create the D&D system were engendered. “
“CHAINMAIL被证明是非常成功的,主要是由于在幻想和个人游戏概念上的开拓性的步骤……”Dave Arneson扩展了这些领域,当他和我在一起的时候,创建D&D系统所需要的想法被产生了。”
From issue #26 June 1979

Adventures of the cerebral type have been with us for as long as mankind has told tales around campfires. Role-playing is at least as old as this, too, if one considers early religious or quasi-religious rites. Both advanced in form during the Golden Age of Greece, assuming forms which are close to those of today. How modern-era adventure games came into being is connected to all of this, for they owe their existence to the D&D® game, a fact which cannot be disputed.
Fantasy wargaming began before adventure gaming. In fact, it began before Chainmail. Tony Bath of England was conducting table-top battles roughly based on the "Hyborean Age" of Robert E. Howard’s Conan stories years before the Fantasy Supplement of Cha/nma/7waspublished.Similarly, role-playing has been common in wargaming for years — decades, I suspect, when one considers the length of time that the hobby has been pursued in England. I can recall being part of the nationwide game which was conceived by "The Ad Hoc Committee for the Re-Reinstitution of WWII,” a group which was based at Stanford University. This writer was given the role of the Chinese Communist commander, while my friend, Don Kaye, was the Chinese Nationalist leader, and our associate, Terry Stafford of Chicago, was the British Far East Squadron Commander. Interesting and differing roles, but all involving thousands, or millions, of men to be commanded.
Our own local group, the Lake Geneva Tactical Studies Association, became involved in one-to-one gaming about 1970. Mike Reese and Leon Tucker, both strong proponents of WWII miniatures gaming, and Jeff Perren and I with our medieval miniatures, provided the group with many hours of enjoyment around the large sand table which reposed in the basement of my home. At various times our number commanded a squad or more of infantry, bands of marauding Vikings, a key bunker, a troop of Mongolian light horse, a platoon of AFVs, and so on. Some of these roles lasted only for a single game or two; some included large scale map movement and the many engagements which constitute a campaign. Late in 1972 these roles were extended to include superheroes and wizards, as the special fantasy section of what was to become Chainmail was playtested. Magic-users defended their strongholds from invading armies, heroes met trolls, and magic items of great power were sought after on the same sand table which had formerly hosted Normans, Napoleonic footsoldiers, and trucks and tanks invading Normandy. These games were certainly adventures, and role-playing was involved, yet what was played could by no means be called either a D&D game or adventure gaming of any sort.
When Dave Arneson, already a member of the International Federation of Wargaming, joined the Castle & Crusade Society, he began playing in our loosely organized campaign game. Most of the action therein was conducted by the LGTSA, using my sand table, with other members of the society coming for visits to my place to join in from time to time. Dave had a large group in the Twin Cities, and they desired to do their own thing. Dave, an expert at running campaign games, began to develop his own "fief” as a setting for a medieval fantasy campaign gaming, reporting these games to the head of the C&C Society.
Using the Chainmail Fantasy Supplement and the "Man-To- Man" rules from the same work, Dave made some interesting innovations: First, he gave his fellows more or less individual roles to play — after all, “Blackmoor” was just a small section bordering on the "Great Kingdom,” and there weren’t all that many heroes and wizards and men-at-arms to parcel out. Then, Dave decided that he would allow progression of expertise for his players, success in games meaning that the hero would gain the ability of five, rather than but four men, eventually gaining the exalted status of superhero; similarly, wizards would gain more spells if they proved successful in their endeavors. Lastly, following the advice in Chainmail to use paper and pencil for underground activity such as mining during campaign-game sieges, and taking a page out of the works of Howard and Burroughs et al, he brought the focus of fantasy miniatures play to the dungeon setting.
Chainmail had proved to be highly successful primarily due to its pioneering steps in fantasy and individual gaming concepts — the tail end of the work which wagged the rest. Dave Arneson expanded upon these areas, and when he and I got together, the ideas necessary to create the D&D system were engendered. After a brief visit, Dave returned home, and within a few days I had received a copy of his campaign notes. A few weeks of play-testing swelled the ranks of the LGTSA to a score or more of avid players, and the form of the D&D rules began to take shape.
奇幻战争游戏开始于冒险游戏之前。事实上,它是在Chainmail之前开始的。英国的托尼·巴斯(Tony Bath)正以罗伯特·e·霍华德(Robert e . Howard)的《柯南故事》(Conan stories)的“Hyborean Age”为基础,进行桌面大战。类似地,角色扮演在战争游戏中已经司空见惯了——我怀疑,当人们考虑到这种爱好在英国被追求的时间长度时,这种现象已经持续了几十年。我可以回忆起当时是“二战后重建机构特设委员会”构想的全国比赛的一部分,该组织的总部设在斯坦福大学。这位作家被赋予了中国共产党指挥官的角色,而我的朋友唐·凯(Don Kaye)是中国的民族主义领袖,而我们的助手,芝加哥的特里·斯塔福德(Terry Stafford)是英国远东中队的指挥官。有趣而又不同的角色,但都牵涉到成千上万的人。
我们自己的当地团体,日内瓦湖战术研究协会,参与了1970年一对一的游戏。Mike Reese和Leon Tucker都是二战迷你游戏的强烈支持者,而我和Jeff Perren和我用我们的中世纪微型画,为这群人提供了在我家地下室里躺着的大沙盘的快乐时光。在不同的时间,我们的号码指挥着一个小队或更多的步兵,成群结队的海盗,一个重要的掩体,一群蒙古轻骑兵,一排AFVs,等等。有些角色只持续了一两个游戏;其中一些包括大规模地图运动和许多活动,构成一场战役。在1972年的后期,这些角色被扩展到包括超级英雄和巫师,因为要成为链邮件的特殊幻想部分是经过测试的。魔法用户们为他们的要塞进行了防御,从入侵的军队中,英雄们遇到了巨魔,并且在同样的沙表上找到了魔法物品,这些物品曾经是诺曼人,拿破仑步兵,卡车和坦克入侵诺曼底。这些游戏都是冒险的,角色扮演也参与其中,但无论如何都不能被称为D&D游戏或任何类型的冒险游戏。
当Dave Arneson已经是国际战争联盟的成员,加入了城堡和十字军协会,他开始在我们的松散组织的竞选活动中玩。其中大部分的行动都是由LGTSA,使用我的沙盘,和其他社会成员来我的地方,时不时地来我的地方。戴夫在双子城有一大群人,他们想做自己的事。戴夫是一名跑步运动游戏的专家,他开始开发自己的“封地”作为中世纪奇幻运动游戏的背景,并将这些游戏报告给了C&C协会的负责人。
使用Chainmail的奇幻增刊和《Man - to - Man》的规则,大卫做了一些有趣的创新:首先,他给了他的同伴更多或更少的个人角色——毕竟,“黑荒原”只是一个与“伟大王国”接壤的小区域,并没有那么多的英雄、巫师和武器来包裹。然后,戴夫决定让他的球员们在游戏中取得进步,在游戏中取得成功意味着英雄将获得五个人的能力,而不是四个人,最终获得超级英雄的地位;同样的,如果法师在他们的努力中被证明是成功的,他们将获得更多的法术。最后,在Chainmail的建议下,用纸张和铅笔进行地下活动,比如在竞选游戏的赛格斯,在霍华德和巴罗斯的作品中,他把幻想的小模型放在了地牢环境中。
事实证明,Chainmail是非常成功的,主要原因是它在幻想和个人游戏概念上的开拓性的步骤——它的尾端是使其余的人摇摆的工作。Dave Arneson扩展了这些领域,当他和我在一起的时候,创建D&D系统所需要的想法被产生了。在短暂的拜访之后,戴夫回家了。几天之内,我收到了他的竞选笔记的副本。几周的游戏测试使得LGTSA的分数上升到一个分数或者更多的狂热的玩家,并且D&D规则的形式开始成形。
If you ever meet someone who claims to have played the game since 1973, you can believe that such is possible, for by the spring of that year the manuscript for the "Original" version of the D&D game was complete. Copies were handed out to interested players in order to stop the late-night and early- morning phone calls asking weird questions about clerics or monsters or whatever.
By the time the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game was published (January 1974) there were already hundreds of players, and the major parts of what was to become Greyhawk were written and in use too. Adventures, role playing, games, and fantasy all reach back into the dawn of history. Adventure gaming dates only to 1973-74 and the D&D concept. In 1974 only slightly more than 1,000 copies of the game had been sold. Today far more than that are sold each month. The game has many competitors, and every manufacturer of miniature figures offers a wide range of fantasy figures. Ads in gaming and hobby trade publications stress fantasy games and figures more often than any other subject. Adventure gaming has come a long way, and the D&D game began it all.
It is the leading adventure game, the most influential, and the most imitated. Since its inception it has been added to through special supplemental works (Greyhawk, Blackmoor, Eldritch Wizardry, and Gods, Demi-Gods & Heroes), augmented by miniatures rules (Swords & Spells), and complemented by a host of specially approved and licensed products from firms such as Judges Guild and Miniature Figurines. The original D&D rules have been edited (by the eminent J. Eric Holmes) to provide an introductory package, and the contents of that offering have recently been expanded to include a beginning module. Despite all of this activity, the game has remained pretty much as it was when it was first introduced in 1974, although there is now far more to it.
The ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® rules comprise a different game. Readers, please take note! It is neither an expansion nor a revision of the old game: It is a new game. A number of letters have come to me, the writers expressing their surprise at or voicing their disapproval of this fact. John Mansfield, in his newsletter Signal, cautions his readers to be aware that an ongoing D&D campaign cannot be switched to AD&DT“ rules without major work or actual scrapping of the old game and beginning a fresh effort. To prevent any further misunderstandings, it is necessary for all fans of gaming to be absolutely aware that there is no more similarity (perhaps even less) between the D&D and AD&D games than there is between the D&D system and its various imitators produced by competing publishers.
Just as the D&D system was the instrument which made adventure gaming what it is today, it is envisioned that the AD&D system will shape the future of fantasy adventure gaming. Where the D&D rules are a very loose, open framework around which highly imaginative Dungeon Masters can construct what amounts to a set of rules and a game of their own choosing, the AD&D rules set forth a much tighter and more structured game system.
The target audience to which we thought the D&D rules would appeal was principally the same as that of historical wargames in general and military miniatures in particular. The original version of the D&D rules was hurriedly compiled, assuming that readers would be familiar with medieval and ancient history, wargaming, military miniatures, etc. It was aimed at males. Within a few months it became apparent to us that our basic assumptions might be a bit off target. In another year it became abundantly clear to us that we were so far off as to be laughable. At least we had the right subject material and the right general approach, so two out of three and all that...
Because the D&D system allowed such freedom, because the work itself said so, because the initial batch of DMs were so imaginative and creative, because the rules were incomplete, vague and often ambiguous, the D&D game has turned into a non-game. That is, there is so much variation between the way the game is played from region to region, state to state, area to area, and even from group to group within a metropolitan district, there is no continuity and little agreement as to just what the game is and how best to play it.
The AD&D system rectifies the shortcomings of the D&D system, without destroying the imagination and individual creativity which go into a campaign. There are few grey areas in the AD&D rules, and there will be no question in the mind of participants as to what the game is and is all about. There is form and structure to the AD&D game, and any variation of these integral portions of the game will obviously make it something else. The work addresses itself to a broad audience of hundreds of thousands of people — wargamers, game hobbyists, science-fiction and fantasy fans, those who have never read fantasy fiction or played strategy games, young and old, male and female.
当龙与地下城的游戏出版(1974年1月)时,已经有数百名玩家,而成为灰鹰的主要部分也被编写和使用。冒险、角色扮演、游戏和幻想都可以追溯到历史的黎明。冒险游戏的日期只有1973 - 74年和D&D概念。在1974年,这个游戏只卖出了1000多本。如今,这个数字远远超过了每个月的销售量。这个游戏有很多竞争者,每个迷你人物的制造商都有各种各样的幻想人物。在游戏和爱好行业出版物上的广告对幻想游戏和数字的压力比其他任何主题都要大。冒险游戏已经走了很长一段路,而D&D游戏开始了这一切。
它是领先的冒险游戏,最有影响力,最被模仿。从一开始,它就被添加到特殊的补充作品(Greyhawk,Blackmoor,Eldritch巫术,和众神,半神和英雄),通过微型画规则(剑和咒语),以及由一些特殊批准和许可的产品,如法官公会和微型雕像的补充。最初的D&D规则(由著名的j . Eric Holmes编辑)提供了一个介绍性的包,并且该产品的内容最近已经扩展到包括一个开始模块。尽管有这么多的活动,这个游戏还是和1974年首次推出时一样,尽管现在已经有了更多的东西。
The AD&D rules will eventually consist of the Dungeon Masters Guide, the Players Handbook, the Monster Manual, the DEITIES & DEMIGODS'" Cyclopedia, and undoubtedly one or two additional volumes of creatures with which to fill fantasy worlds. (Editor's note: One such volume of creatures, the FIEND FOLIO'" Tome, was released in August 1981.) These books, together with a broad range of modules and various playing aids, will provide enthusiasts with everything they need to create and maintain an enjoyable, exciting, fresh, and ever- challenging campaign. Readers are encouraged to differentiate their campaigns, calling them AD&D adventures if they are so. While D&D campaigns can be those which feature comic-book spells, 43rd-level balrogs as player characters, and include a plethora of trash from various and sundry sources, an AD&D campaign cannot be so composed. Either a DM runs an AD&D campaign, or else it is something else. This is clearly stated within the work, and it is a mandate which will be unchanging, even if the AD&D system undergoes change at some future date.
While DMs are free to allow many unique features to become a part of their campaigns — special magic items, new monsters, different spells, unusual settings — and while they can have free rein in devising the features and facts pertaining to the various planes which surround the Prime Material, it is understood they must adhere to the form of the AD&D rule structure. Otherwise, what they referee is a variant adventure game. In an AD&D game as well as in a D&D campaign, DMs still create an entire milieu, populate it and give it history and meaning. Players still develop personae and adventure in realms of the strange and fantastic, performing deeds of derring-do, but this all follows a master plan.
The advantages of such a game are obvious. Because the integral features are known and immutable, there can be no debate as to what is correct. A meaningful dialogue can be carried on between DMs, regardless of what region of the country (or the planet) they play in. Players can move from one AD&D campaign to another and know at the very least the basic precepts of the game — that magic-users will not wield swords, that fighters don’t have instant death to give or take with critical hits or double damage, that strange classes of characters do not rule the campaign, that the various deities will not be constantly popping in and out of the game at the beck and call of player characters, etc. The AD&D system will suffer no such abuses, and DMs who allow them must realize this up front. The best feature of a game which offers real form, however, is that it will more readily lend itself to actual improvement — not just change, but true improvement. Once everyone is actually playing a game which is basically the same from campaign to campaign, any flaws or shortcomings of the basic systems and/or rules are lost due to the differences in play and the wide variety of solutions proposed — most of which reflect the propensities of local groups reacting to some variant system which their DM uses in his or her campaign in the first place. In AD&D activity, such aberrations will be excluded, and a broad base can be used to determine what is actually needed and desired.
Obtaining the opinions of the majority of AD&D players will be a difficult task. This is a certainty. If there are now more than a quarter million D&D and/or AD&D players (and this is likely a conservative estimate) less than 10% are actively in touch with the “hard core” of hobby gaming. Most of these players are only vaguely aware that Gary Gygax had anything to do with the D&D game. Only a relative handful read DRAGON'" magazine, and fewer still have any idea that there are other magazines which deal with the game. Frankly speaking, they don’t care, either. They play D&D or AD&D games as leisure recreation. These are games to fill spare time, more or less avidly pursued according to the individual temperament of the individuals involved. To this majority, games are a diversion, not a way of life. A pastime, not something to be taken seriously.
The D&D game initiated a tradition of fun and enjoyment in hobby gaming. It was never meant to be taken seriously. The AD&D game is done in the same mold. It is not serious. It simulates absolutely nothing. It does not pretend to offer any realism. Games are for fun, and the AD&D system is a game. It certainly provides a vehicle which can be captivating, and a pastime in which one can easily become immersed, but is nonetheless only a game.
AD&D规则最终将包括《地下城主指南》、《玩家手册》、《怪物手册》、《神神》和《百科全书》,毫无疑问,还有一到两卷的生物来填充奇幻世界。(编者按:1981年8月出版的《魔鬼的书》(the FIEND FOLIO' s))。这些书,连同各种各样的模块和各种各样的辅助工具,将为爱好者们提供他们所需要的一切,来创造和维持一个令人愉快、激动人心的、新鲜的、充满挑战的运动。读者被鼓励去区分他们的活动,如果他们是这样的话,他们称之为AD&D冒险。虽然d&d的运动可以是那些漫画书的魔法,43d级的balrogs作为玩家角色,并且包含了来自各种各样不同来源的大量垃圾,但是ad&d的战役是不可能如此的。要么是DM运行ad&d运动,要么是其他的东西。这在工作中是明确的,而且它是一项使命,它将是不变的,即使ad&d系统在将来的某个日期发生变化。

The bulk of participants echo this attitude. TSR will be hard put to obtain meaningful random survey data from these individuals simply because they are involved in playing the game, not in writing about it or reading about it outside the playing materials proper. There are, of course, a number of ways to surmount the problem, and you can count that steps will be taken to do so.
Conformity to a more rigid set of rules also provides a better platform from which to launch tournaments as well. Brian Blume recently established a regular invitational meet for AD&D "master players" (in which this writer placed a rather abysmal 10th out of 18 entries, but what the hell, it was good while it lasted). The "Invitational” will certainly grow, and TSR is now considering how best to establish an annual or semiannual “Open” tournament for AD&D players to compete for enjoyment, considerable prize awards, recognition, and a chance to play in the “Masters" event. There is no reason not to expect these events, and/or others of similar nature sponsored by TSR, to grow and become truly exceptional opportunities in the years to come. Good things are certainly in store for AD&D players everywhere! Not only will AD&D retain its pre-eminent position in adventure gaming, but it will advance it considerably in the future. More variety, more approaches to play, more forms of the game, and more fun are in store.
The D&D game will always be with us, and that is a good thing. The D&D system allows the highly talented, individualistic, and imaginative hobbyist a vehicle for devising an adventure game form which is tailored to him or her and his or her group. One can take great liberties with the game and not be questioned. Likewise, the complicated and “realistic” imitators of the D&D system will always find a following amongst hobby gamers, for there will be those who seek to make adventure gaming a serious undertaking, a way of life, to which all of their thought and energy is directed with fanatical devotion.
At the same time, ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS gaming, with its clearer and easier approach, is bound to gain more support, for most people play games, not live them — and if they can live them while enjoying play, so much the better. This is, of course, what the AD&D game aims to provide. So far it seems we have done it.
遵守一套更严格的规则也提供了一个更好的平台来启动比赛。Brian Blume最近为AD&D“大师玩家”建立了一个定期的邀请赛(他在18个参赛作品中排名第10位,但是在这段时间里,他的表现很好)。“邀请赛”肯定会增加,TSR正在考虑如何最好地为ad&d的球员建立每年或半年度的“开放”比赛,以争夺比赛的乐趣,获得可观的奖金,认可,以及在“大师赛”上比赛的机会。我们没有理由不去期待这些事件,或者其他由TSR赞助的类似性质的事件,在未来的岁月里成长,成为真正的特殊机遇。好东西肯定是在商店里到处都是AD&D的玩家!AD&D不仅在冒险游戏中保持其卓越的地位,而且在未来还会有相当大的发展。更多的变化,更多的游戏方式,更多的游戏形式,更多的乐趣在商店。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #28 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:09:28 »

The AD&D™ Dungeon Masters Guide contains a fairly detailed section regarding the various alignment characteristics. On reflection, however, I began to wonder if enough had been said about the different approaches to evil. Now, if one clearly defines the lawful evil and the chaotic evil characteristics, the neutral evil path becomes evident as the middle road between the two opposite approaches to the precept of banefulness. Considering the confusion regarding alignments, it cannot but help to say a few more words on the subject.
Evil is typified by the desire to advance self over others, by whatever means are possible, and always by the foulest of means possible — and more on that later. Whatever causes the most harm is typically the most desirable course to follow. Pain and suffering are meat and drink to the creatures of evil. Slavery and oppression of all weaker creatures are considered as natural, for these exist only to serve and satisfy the demands of the stronger.
Lawful evil believes that the only way to impose the tyranny of their alignment over all creation is to follow an ordered course of action. Their evil society is rigidly structured, each being knowing its place and cruelly dominating all beneath this station, while being just as bullied from those above. Each creature in this hierarchy strives to follow the orders from the stronger most painstakingly — both to avoid punishment and in hopes of bettering its position in the order. To those beneath, each is as harsh and cruel as possible: fearful of failure in its tasks, of being replaced by an underling. The evil ends desired might be better obtained by actions which are actually less vile than other options, but the order of lawful evil will generally perceive the most useful course rather than merely the most baneful in the short term. Hell and its environs hate chaotic good most vehemently, for they see threats there to both the structure of their social system and their proposed course. What worse than both total freedom and happiness brought about only by individual achievement and character? Therefore, lawful evil would certainly not hesitate to ally itself with virtually any other cause if this helped to abridge the scope and influence of those creatures typifying the chaotic good. Similarly, a devil would attempt to influence and possess principally those humans who were powerful and influential leaders of ordered communities, organizations, and states, i.e. lawful individuals not already committed to evil ends.
Chaotic evil certainly has the common denominator of banefulness with those creatures who follow the ordered path of woe. They likewise oppress and enslave, tortureand kill forthe pure pleasure of seeing suffering and death. But while lawful evil sees these activities as part of the structured course towards a world ruled by evil, those of chaotic evil alignment see such activities as an end in themselves. While the weaker chaotic evil creatures fear and often hate the stronger, they are ruled by them only insofar as the reach of the stronger extends — and possibly only as long as the stronger has interest in so doing. The individual evil is more important than the collective one. Let each evil being do its best to spread evil and chaos, and the ultimate result will be a cancerous spread of the alignment. Order is next to good in undesirableness, so lawful good is the antithesis of chaotic evil. Yet creatures of this alignment will not long associate to combat their hated foes, except lesser creatures under the leadership of some mighty demon or in extreme situations where the very structure of chaotic evil is threatened by some great coalition of good. A demon is not interested in ruling nations, but in spreading evil as it alone sees fit. Therefore, possession by a creature of chaotic evil is typically of an unstable individual who will run amok for a short time, or of some singular figure who will be in a position to send out many such individuals.
The differences in tendencies and philosophies are reflected in the personal involvement of devils and demons in the affairs of the Prime Material Plane. The rulers of the Planes of Hell (devils) will seldom involve themselves in worldly affairs directly. Archdevils operate through their organizations to influence the course of events on the Prime Material Plane. Because of the strict order that devilkind adheres to, intervention of even lesser devils is rare, as the rulers make pacts with humans and other agents. These arrangements assure that lawful evil is spread upon the Prime Material Plane, even though the tiers of Hell are smaller than the layers of the Abyss, for example, and there are far fewer devils than there are demons. While there is rivalry betwixt the dukes of Hell, it is a prescribed and ordered contest wherein the rivals recognize limits and the need for mutual cooperation in order to insure that their collective realm remains strong and inviolate.
The very nature of demonkind, however, dictates a far more direct involvement in activities on the Prime Material Plane. Lacking extensive organizations, each demon lord must become personally active if he or she desires to meddle in the affairs of humankind, et al. It is not making a virtue of necessity on the part of demons to point out that they prefer such personal involvement. Thus, this or that demon lord will be encountered in material form, directing the activities of whatever group of followers he or she has gathered to spread disorder and woe upon the earth. Each powerful demon (and there are scores and scores of them) competes bitterly with all others in a deadly rivalry for supremacy — both in the Abyss and on the Prime Material Plane. The chaotic nature of demonkind dictates that mutual cooperation is unlikely at best, and any alliance between two demon lords will be one of mistrust and betrayal, doomed to a very short lifespan.
Neutral evil, as typified by daemonkind, follows the middle course between the rigidly ordered society of the Nine Hells and the anarchy of the Abyss. Yet this alignment has neither the organizational capability of lawful evil nor the great multitudes of chaotic evil, so all told it is weaker than either. The flexibility of neutral evil creatures enables them to survive and remain relatively free of rule by either Hell or by one or more demon lords. The daemons and other inhabitants of Hades (and Gehenna and Tarterus as well) will as often as not become personally involved in activity on the Prime Material Plane if they see it as gainful to their power and prestige or particularly enjoyable. In like manner, they will join in diabolical or demonic enterprises to further their ends, both evil and personal.
Lawful evil has more common cause than those of lawful neutral bent than it does with demonkind, just as chaotic evil has more fellowship with chaotic neutrality than it does with Hell. Both chaotic evil and lawful evil types despise those who take the neutral course, seeing this as fence-straddling, so to speak. The demons are too disorganized to enslave these creatures, however, while Hell desires a buffer and uses daemon- kind as tools as well. For their part, daemons play off the Abyss against lawful evil to insure their freedom, power, and continued importance.
In summation, lawful evil, through its orderly arrangement and structure, wields great influence throughout the Prime Material Plane, even though devils seldom take a personal role, and the number of the dwellers in the Nine Hells is not overwhelming. Chaotic evil, on the other hand, while represented by a far greater number of powerful creatures taking a direct part in the affairs of the world, has no greater influence or power — perhaps less, even — because of animosity between demons and the chaotic tendencies which preclude organization and assurance of purposes carried out by lesser beings under direction. Hell works carefully to bring its evil yoke over all the world, while demonkind attempts only individual forays to aggrandize some lord or other, increase the fame and glory of a particular prince or princess of the Abyss, or merely to bring a few decades of foulest pleasure.
The lawful evil character, then, is bound to follow a course which is strictly ordered. The path he or she follows is one of evil, but also one which attempts to bring formal rule to the world under the auspices of Hell. The character must obey and strive for the purposes of lawful evil — furthering his or her own position in the process, of course. Those of you who have read Fred Saberhagen's Changling Earth will recognize that the Emperor John Ominor ruled a lawful evil realm — although he apparently served no diabolic master.
In contrast, the chaotic evil character serves only him or herself, but always toward evil ends. But the chaotic evil character recognizes no master, save out of fear and necessity, and even in the event that such recognition is necessary, he or she will always strive to gain the upper hand and dominate.If lawful evil can be likened to a mountain chain, with the highest peaks being the dukes of Hell and the lowest foothills the menial servants, then chaotic evil is a series of islands and islets in a vast sea — numerous, but connected only tenuously by underwater ridges.
The lawful evil character will certainly cooperate with others in order to extend the sway of his or her alignment — seeking advantage by lies, trickery, and deceit while adhering to the letter of the bargain, naturally. The chaotic evil character will rule but seldom cooperate for long. As soon as he or she sees a possible advantage accruing through abandonment or betrayal — or perhaps simply because he or she has grown tired of the pact — the chaotic evil character will be true to the precept of his or her alignment!
Players can assume the role of a good or an evil character without undue difficulty, but in my experience the orderly or disorderly tendencies are another matter altogether. Law and chaos seem to be more ingrained in the actual personality of a player, and these bents are thus not as easily acted out. While you, as DM, will order the NPCs of lawful, neutral, or chaotic evil alignment, your players will tend to assume alignments which actually fit their personalities as respects order vs. anarchy, so you must observe such activities quite closely. It is common for players to seek the best of both worlds by claiming the benefits of one alignment while using the processes of the other in order to gain power. Thus, a player might well claim to be lawful evil in order to receive the assistance of an archdevil, and thereafter blithely go about setting up a totally independent and free-wheeling empire of evil which has nothing to do with the aims of Hell. Such liberties cannot be allowed....
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #29 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:10:19 »

Humans and hybrids
Of late I have seen several different treatments of half-ogres, and the suggestion that this type of creature is a viable and worthwhile racial type for player characters has thus gained some small popularity. This subject also touches upon another, closely related, matter: the whole gamut of crossbreeds which could possibly be included in an AD&D'“ game. Dungeon Masters must be apprised of the potential can of worms they will be opening by allowing these mixtures in their campaigns.
The character races in the AD&D system were selected with care. They give variety of approach, but any player selecting a non-human (part- or demi-human) character does not have any real advantage. True, some of these racial types give short-term advantages to the players who choose them, but in the long run these same characters are at an equal disadvantage when compared to human characters with the same number of experience points. This was, in fact, designed into the game. The variety of approach makes role selection more interesting. Players must weigh advantages and disadvantages carefully before opting for character race, human or otherwise. It is in vogue in some campaigns to remove restrictions on demi- humans — or to at least relax them somewhat. While this might make the DM popular for a time with those participants with dwarven fighters of high level, or elven wizards of vast power, it will eventually consign the campaign as a whole to one in which the only races will be non-human. Dwarves, elves, et al will have all the advantages and no real disadvantages, so the majority of players will select these races, and humankind will disappear from the realm of player character types. This bears upon various hybrid racial types as well.
In designing the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS®game, I considered the possible racial mixtures. Should half-dwarves, halfgnomes, and half-halflings (and is a half-half ling a quartling, perchance?) be allowed? How about dwarf-elf, dwarf- gnome, dwarf-halfling, elf-gnome, elf- halfling, and gnome-halfling crossbreeds? Then there are tri-racial mixtures. Those involving humansand ores add still more confounding factors. And now somebody decided that ogres could cross with humans! Could they cross with elves also? How about hill giants interbreeding with humans? With elves? With ogres? With ettins? Why leave out goblins, hobgoblins, and bugbears?
Because of the potential for absolute madness in the game, I included only the half-elf, hoping that the rest would not arise to plague the placid waters of racial selection, but it is apparent that it was not meant to be.
Consider the various factors which must be taken into account when designing a race for game purposes. Remember that last part; this is, first and foremost, a game. Races, just as with classes, must be in relative balance with each other, as well as with the game as a whole. Setting this balance is a difficult and delicate operation! So we have 1) character class limits due to race; 2) level limits due to race; 3) ability adjustments due to race; 4) racial minimums and maximums in abilities; 5) racial preferences; and 6) special characteristics of racial types, i.e. magic resistance, saving throws, combat vs. specific monsters, visual and other sense capabilities, and "sixth-sense" or innate skill capabilities (such as detection of grades, and underground conditions, etc.). If these six factors are considered only as single entities, not as multifaceted ones, there is still plenty of work to do in setting up even a single additional character race, for each must be meshed with and balanced against all other such races. Now consider the possible crossbreeds, and multiply your DMing woes by a thousand! As surely as you allow a single player to select a non-standard hybrid, another will come along asking for some special crossbreed which he or she envisions to be "logical,” meaningful, and fun to play (read “advantageous for the player in question"). Pixie- storm giant half-breeds would not be impossible.... (For those who doubt the last claim, consider a lecherous male pixie equipped with several growth potions and a love philter. And, when all is said and done, an AD&D game is fantasy.)
The Half-Ogre
Character classes possible: cleric or fighter Class level limits: cleric, 4th; fighter, unlimited Ability score minimums and maximums: Strength 14/18’, Intelligence 3/122, Wisdom 2/123, Dexterity 3/124, Constitution 14/185, Charisma 2/86.
1 Average human strength combined with ogre strength and averaged to find spread. Use d6, with a roll of 5 or 6 equaling 18, with a percentile bonus of 25% to the roll for exceptional strength if the first roll was 6, but an 18/00 maximum in any event.
2   This spread could be lowered to a 10 maximum if the human parent was below norm.
3   This spread could be lowered to a 10 maximum if the human parent was below norm.
4   Again, this is generous, and a case could be made for 3-10 (d8 + 2).
5   Constitution roll in excess of 18 is not possible, and if the d6 roll is 6, then treat it as the 18 maximum.
6   Charisma score would not apply to ogres and half- ogres; double the result generated for the charismatic effect on such creatures.
Racial preferences: Half-ores would rate a “T,” humans an "N," and other half-ogres a “P.” All others would be “H” both ways.
Special characteristics: Half-ogres have infravision to 60'. They speak ogre, ore and troll only if raised with an ogre parent. Complexion will be swarthy and dull, hair lank and dark. Average height will be 7% feet. Half-ogres have two hit dice of the appropriate type at 1st level, then regular progression as usual.
These quite reasonable parameters for half-ogre characters typify the offspring of a human and an ogre, were there such a thing as the latter, define their potential, and make it a race which will not disrupt the campaign. The only advantages accruing to half-ogres are in strength and constitution, and these are more than outweighed by disadvantages elsewhere. In fact, this race, when properly controlled, becomes a rather unappetizing and boring prospect for character play. On the other hand, such creatures would make highly desirable guards or mercenary troops — assuming one could abide their chaotic and evil bent — for they have many benefits and few d rawbacks when compared with full-blooded ogres. For this reason alone, there will have to be strict limits placed upon the numbers of half-ogres available in the campaign.
It is important to reiterate that hybrids not shown in AD&D Players Handbook should be generally rejected in the well run campaign. The device is that of players seeking to gain some advantage for themselves by choosing a racial mixture which they believe will have greater advantages (with fewer drawbacks) than those of the character races given in the official AD&D rules.
If exceptions are to be made, be certain that you, the DM, consider each thoroughly prior to admitting it into the campaign milieu. Each exception must be detailed as was done for the half-ogre, above. Do so privately, and if after listing its parameters you find that the hybrid is unacceptable, disallow its use — or go back and restructure the characteristics, being careful to use the examples in the Players Handbook as a guide. Then, and only then, should a player be allowed to have such a hybrid racial type to choose from. Lastly, if thereafter many of your participants suddenly express a desire to start characters of this particular racial mixture, you can pretty well rely upon the fact that you blew it.
All of this will certainly lead to the question, why is it that the human race is so favored in the AD&D rule system? There is no question that human characters have an edge on all others in the long run — even considering the generally unlimited potential for non-human thieves. The bias was placed in the game on the assumption that the vast majority of campaign milieux would be based on human-dominated worlds. Therefore, humans must have some sort of edge. As human adaptability is undoubted, and human capabilities deemed vast by this writer, it seemed to follow that allowing them the full range of possibilities was the best answer. Thus, humans are found in all alignments, in all professions, and so on. The weakest are very weak, the strongest very strong. The human race plumbs the depths and soars to the heights. In the AD&D world, as in the real world, humankind will certainly attain greatness and domination if it doesn’t destroy itself first through warfare and strife within its own race.
可能的角色等级:牧师或战士等级限制:牧师,第四;战士,无限能力得分最低和最高:强度14 /18 ',智力3 / 122,智慧2 / 123,敏捷3 / 124,宪法14 / 185,魅力2 / 86。
人的平均力量与食人魔的力量相结合,平均发现传播。使用d6,一卷5或6等于18,如果第一个卷是6,就有25%的百分位数加成,但在任何情况下都是18 / 00的最大值。
再一次,这是慷慨的,可以用3 - 10(d8 + 2)。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #30 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:10:50 »

“. . . imagine a game based on the exploits of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle ’ s magnificent SherlockHolmes . Which of the participants wouldn’t wish for the role of the great detective? . . . what would the participants do if Holmes were slain? Or merely made a fool of”
From issue #31 November 1979

Heroic fantasy adventure novels relate a story for the reader’s leisure enjoyment. Heroic fantasy adventure games provide a vehicle for the user's creation and development of epic tales through the medium of play. This simple difference is too often overlooked.
In the former case, the reader passively relates to what the author has written, hopefully identifying with one or the other of the novel’s leading characters, thus becoming immersed in the work and accepting it as real for the time.
Games, however, involve participants actively, and in the instance of fantasy adventure games, the player must create and develop a game persona which becomes the sole vehicle through which the individual can relate to the work.
Again, in the novel, the entire advantage related is a matter of fact which the reader will discover by perusal of the story from beginning to conclusion, without benefit of input. In contrast, the adventure game has only a vaguely fixed starting point, and the participant must, in effect, have a hand in authoring an unknown number of chapters in an epic work of heroic fantasy.
A novel has an entirely different goal than does a game, although both are forms of entertainment. The novel carries the reader from start to finish, white the game must be carried by the players.
An heroic fantasy adventure story should be so complete as to offer little within its content for reader creativity, or else it is an unfinished tale. This is not to say that the reader cannot become involved in the telling, that there is no rapport between writer and reader,or even that the whole milieu produced by the work isn’t vividly alive in the reader's mind. It simply is to point out that the author has conceived a fantasy, placed it in black and white before the reader, and invited him or her to share it.
A fantasy adventure game should offer little else but the possibility of imaginative input from the participant, for the aim of any game is to involve the participants in active play, while heroic fantasy adventure dictates imagination, creativity, and more.
The obvious corollary to this — and one evidently missed by many players, designers, and even publishers — is that a truly excellent novel provides an inversely proportionate amount of good material for a game. The greater the detail and believability of the fantasy, the less room for creativity, speculation, or even alteration.
Consider J.R.R. Tolkien’s “Ring Trilogy” for a moment. This is certainly a masterwork in heroic fantasy—with emphasis on fantasy. Its detail is vast. Readers readily identify with the protagonists, whether hobbit, human, or elf. Despite the fact that the whole tale seems to vouch for the reliability of the plain and simple “little guy” in doing a dirty job right, despite the fact that these books could very well deal allegorically with the struggle of the Allies vs. the Axis in WWII, despite the fact that the looming menace of the Tyrannical Evil simply blows away into nothing in the end, millions of readers find it the epitome of the perfect heroic fantasy adventure.
There are no divine powers to intervene on behalf of a humanity faced by ineffable evil. The demi-god being, Tom Bombadil, is written out of the tale because his intervention would have obviated the need for the bulk of the remaining work. The wizards are basically mysterious and rather impotent figures who offer cryptic advice, occasionally do something useful, but by and large are offstage doing “important business" or “wicked plotting."
Thus, the backbone of the whole is the struggles of a handful of hobbits, elves, humans, and dwarves against a backdrop of human armies and hordes of evil ores. Irrespective of its merits as a literary classic (and there is no denying that it is a beautifully written tale), the "Ring Trilogy” is quite unsatisfactory as a setting for a fantasy adventure game.
If the basis for such a game is drawn straight from the three novels, then there is no real game at all — merely an endless repetition, with a few possible variations, of the “Fellowship” defeating Sauron et al. As soon as the potential for evil to triumph is postulated by the game, several problems arise: First, most dedicated readers, identifying with the heroic elements of the work, do not desire to play the despised forces of Saruman or Sauron. The greater chance to win that evil has, the greater the overall antipathy for playing the game at all. Tolkien purists will also object to a distortion of the story.
Finally, even if the whole is carefully balanced, the best one can come up with is a series of variations on the “Ring Trilogy," whether the re-enactment is a role- playing game or a board game. The roles are cast by Tolkien, the world is structured according to his wants and desires. The more the game is put into this framework, the less of J.R.R.T. the participants will discover.

In similar fashion, imagine a game based on the exploits of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's magnificent sleuth Sherlock Holmes. Which of the participants wouldn’t like to play the role of the great detective? Or, at the very least, Dr. Watson? The subject matter for any such game would be particularly difficult to handle, and what would the participants do if Holmes were slain? Or merely made a fool of, for that matter?
These two examples of extrapolating a game from fiction are given only to illustrate the point about the major differences between what makes a good game and what makes a good adventure novel. The same applies to all works of fiction to a greater or lesser extent.
Delving further into the matter, we next come to the character in the adventure. In heroic fantasy novels, each character is designed to fit into the tale being told, for whatever ends the author desires. Each such character is interwoven to form the plot fabric of the work.
Such characters make for great reading, but as absolute models for games? Never! What AD&D'“ player would find it interesting to play a wizard figure of Gandalf-like proportions? What DM would allow a Conan into his or her campaign?
The object of the character in the fantasy adventure game is to provide the player with a means of interacting with the scenario, a vehicle by which the participant can engage in game activity. Each gaming character must provide interest for the participant through its potential, its unique approaches to the challenges of the game form, and yet be roughly equal to all other characters of similar level.
While novels fix character roles to suit a preordained conclusion, game personae must be designed with sufficient flexibility so as to allow for participant personality differences and multiple unknown situations.
Were a designer to offer a game form in which all participants were fighters of Conan’s ilk, participants might find it interesting at first but then the lack of challenge and objective would certainly make the game pall. If the design were then amended to allow for titanic forces to actually threaten a fighter of Conan's stature, the game merely becomes one where participants start at the top and work upwards from there.
This approach seems quite unacceptable to my way of thinking, and not necessary because it could have begun on a far more reasonable and believable level. The same logic applies to designs which feature any type of character as super-powerful. They are usually developed by individuals who do not grasp the finer points of game design, or they are thrust forward by participants who envision such characters as a vehicle to allow them to dominate an existing game form.
Were fighters to be given free rein of magic items in an AD&D game, and spells relegated to a potency typical of most heroic fantasy novels, for example, then the vast majority of participants would desire to have fighter characters. This would certainly lessen the scope of the game.
If a spell-point system which allowed magic-users to use any spell on the lists (and use them frequently, for what spell-point system doesn’t allow for rapid restoration of points?), these characters become highly dominant, and again most participants will naturally opt for this role.
Were clerics to be given use of all weapons and more offensive spells, the rush would be for priest characters.
Were thieves assumed to be more brigand and less of a sneak-thief, pickpocket character, so that they fought as fighters and possibly wore armor, then the majority of players would desire thief characters.
The point is, each AD&D character has strengths and weak
nesses which make any chosen profession less than perfect. Choose one, and you must give up the major parts of the other approaches. Each character has different and unique aspects. Playing the game with the different classes of characters offers a fresh approach, even if the basic problems are not dissimilar. The diversity of roles, without undue inequality, is what makes any game interesting and fun to play.
In a novel, diversity is a tool for the author to use in developing the protagonist’s character, for highlighting the magnitude of his or her accomplishments, as a contrast between good and evil, or whatever is needed. A novel can easily have a magic-using fighter, a sword-wielding wizard, or a thief who combines all such aspects.
The work can just as well have the antithesis of such characters — the inept swordsman; the bumbling, lack-power magician; the hopeless thief who never gains a copper. The writer knows his or her aims, and such personae are actors who follow their roles to the desired end.
以同样的方式,想象一场以阿瑟·柯南·道尔爵士(Sir Arthur Conan Doyle)的华丽侦探夏洛克·福尔摩斯(Sherlock Holmes)为原型的游戏。哪个参与者不愿意扮演大侦探的角色?或者,至少,华生医生?任何这类游戏的主题都将特别难以处理,如果福尔摩斯被杀,参与者会做些什么呢?或者仅仅是为了那件事而做了一个傻瓜?
Contrary to this, in the fantasy role-playing game, characters are the principal authors of the adventure epic which is developed by means of the rules, the Dungeon Master’s scripting, and the players’ interaction with these and each other. With characters of too much or little power, the story rapidly becomes a farce or a tragedy!
By all means, do not discard heroic fantasy novels as useless to gaming. They are, in fact, of utmost benefit! If the basis of the game is a setting which allows maximum imaginative input from players, and characters’ roles are both unique and viable (as well as relatively balanced as compared to one another), ideas for these areas and for all the structure and "dressing" are inspired from such fictional works.
With appropriate knowledge of what can only be called primary source material as regards heroic fantasy (the classic mythology works of Europe, et al), these novels not only engender fresh ideas, they also point the designer or DM toward other areas. After all, the authors of such works often have considerable knowledge of subject matter ideal for use in heroic fantasy adventure gaming. Tolkien drew heavily upon British myth, the Norse sagas and Eddas, and even the word ent is from the Saxon tongue, meaning giant.
There is certainly much to be learned from scholarly writers, and they can often point the reader toward the source material they used. As a case in point, L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt cite Faerie Queen and Orlando Furioso as sources for parts of The Incomplete Enchanter and The Castle of Iron. The latter stories are exceptionally fine examples of heroic fantasy adventure. The former works are excellent inspirational sources.
The “G Series" modules (Steading of the Hill Giant Chief, Glacial Rift of the Frost Giant Jarl, and Hall of the Fire Giant King) were certainly inspired by de Camp and Pratt’s The Incomplete Enchanter. The three "D Series” modules which continue the former series owe little, if anything, to fiction. Drow are mentioned in Keightley’s The Fairy Mythology, as I recall (it might have been The Secret Commonwealth — neither book is before me, and it is not all that important anyway), and as Dark Elves of evil nature, they served as an ideal basis for the creation of a unique new mythos designed especially for the AD&D game. The roles the various drow are designed to play in the series are commensurate with those of prospective player characters. In fact, the race could be used for player characters, providing that appropriate penalties were levied when a drow or half-drow was in the daylight world.
The sketchy story line behind the series was written with the game in mind, so rules and roles were balanced to suit the AD&D system. It is not difficult to write a tale based on AD&D characters, but it is difficult to try to fit regular characters from an heroic fantasy novel into the AD&D mold. There are exceptions.
Individual characters from myth or authored mythos can be used as special characters of the non-player sort (monsters, if you will) for inclusion in scenarios. Most such characters can be altered to fit into the AD&D structure — or rules can be bent in order to allow for them as an exceptional case — in order to make the campaign more interesting and exciting.
That is not to say that they can be used as role models for character types in the game — that Melniboneans, for exam pie, are suitable as player characters just because Elric is inserted into a scenario. This sort of thinking quickly narrows the scope of the game to one or two combination-profession character types with virtually unlimited powers and potential, and there goes the game!
So when you are tempted to allow character additions or alterations which cite this or that work as a basis for the exception, consider the ultimate effect such deviation will have on the campaign, both immediate and long-term.
Keep roles from novels in their proper place — either as enjoyable reading or as special insertions of the non-player sort. The fact that thus-and-so magic-user in a fantasy yarn always employs a magic sword, or that the Gray Mouser, a thief, is a commensurate bladesman, has absolutely nothing to do with the balance between character classes in the AD&D system.
Clerics, fighter, magic-users, thieves, et al are purposely designed to have strengths and weaknesses which give each profession a unique approach to solving the problems posed by the game. Strengthening one by alteration or addition actually abridges the others and narrows the scope of your campaign.
从学术作家身上可以学到很多东西,他们也可以把读者引向他们所使用的来源材料。作为一个例子,l . Sprague de Camp和Fletcher Pratt引用Faerie Queen和Orlando Furioso作为不完整的巫师和铁城堡的部分来源。后一种故事是英雄幻想冒险的极好例子。以前的作品都是极好的灵感来源。
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #31 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:11:21 »

“ . . . the AD&D magic system is a combination of reputed magic drawn from works of fiction and from myth. ”
“The new form which spell casting has taken in the AD&D game has a more realistic flavor to it . . . it requires far more effort from spell-casters in gaining, preparing, and casting spells . ”
From issue #33 January 1980

Working up rules about make-believe can be difficult. Magic, at least AD&DT“ magic, is most certainly make-believe. If there are "black arts” and “occult sciences" which deal with real, working magic spells, I have yet to see them.
Mildly put, I do not have any faith in the powers of magic, nor have I ever seen anyone who could perform anything approaching a mere first- level AD&D spell without props. Yet heroic fantasy has long been one of my favorite subjects, and while I do not believe in invincible superheroes, wicked magicians, fire-breathing dragons, and the stuff of fairie, I love it all nonetheless! Being able to not only read about heroic adventures of this sort, but also to play them as a game form, increased the prospects of this enjoyment of imaginary worlds. So magic and dragons and superheroes and all such things were added to Chainmail.
Simply desiring to play fantasy-based games does not bring them into being as a usable product. Most of the subject matter dealt with has only a limited range of treatment. Thus, giants are always written of as large and not overly bright, save in classical mythology, of course. Some are larger than others, and some are turned to stone by sunlight, and so on, but the basics were there to draw from, and no real problems were posed in selecting characteristics for such creatures in a game. The same is basically true for many monsters and even adventurers — heroes, magic-users, et al. Not so with magic. There are nearly as many treatments of magic as there are books which deal with it. What approach to take? In Chainmail, this was not a particularly difficult decision. The wizard using the magic was simply a part of an overall scheme, so the spells just worked: As a catapult hurled boulders, so a wizard threw fire balls or lightning bolts; elves could move invisibly, split-move and fire bows, and engage monsters if armed with magical weapons, while wizards could become invisible or cast spells.
When it came time to translate the cut-and-dried stuff of the Chainmail Fantasy Supplement to the original DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® rules, far more selection and flexibility had to be delivered, for the latter game was free-form. This required me to back up several steps to a point where the figure began a career which would eventually bring him or her to the state where they would equal (and eventually exceed) a Chainmail wizard. Similarly, some basis for the use of magic had to be created so that a system of spell acquisition could be devised. Where should the magic power come from? Literature gave many possible answers, but most were unsuitable for a game, for they demanded that the spell-caster spend an inordinate amount of time preparing the spell. No viable adventurer character could be devised where a week or two of preliminary steps were demanded for the conjuration of some not particularly mighty spell. On the other hand, spell-casters could not be given license to broadcast magic whenever and wherever they chose.
This left me with two major areas to select from. The internal power, or manna, system where each spell-caster uses energy from within to effect magic, requires assigning a total point value to each such character’s manna, and a cost in points to each spell. It is tedious to keep track of, difficult to police, and allows magic-users far too much freedom where a broad range of spells are given. If spell points were to be used, it would require that either selection be limited or all other characters and monsters be strengthened. Otherwise, spell-users would quickly come to dominate the game, and participants would desire to play only that class of character. (As a point of reference, readers are referred to the handling of psionic abilities as originally treated in Eldritch Wizardry. Therein, psionic manna was assumed, the internal power usable to tap external sources, and the range of possible powers thus usable was sharply limited.)
Having read widely in the fantasy genre since 1950, I opted instead for the oft-used system which assumes that magic comes from power locked within certain words and phrases which are uttered to release the force. This mnemonic power system was exceedingly well articulated by Jack Vance in his superb novels The Eyes of The Overworld and Dying Earth, as well as in various short stories. In memorizing the magical words, the brain of the would-be spell-caster is taxed by the charged force of these syllables. To increase capacity, the spell-caster must undergo training, study, and mental discipline.
This is not to say that he or she ever understands the words, but the capacity to hold them in the memory and to speak them correctly increases thus. The magic words, in turn, trigger energy which causes the spell to work.
The so-called “Vancian" magic system allows a vast array of spells. Each is assigned a level (mnemonic difficulty) rating, and experience grades are used to expand the capacity of the spell-caster. The use of this particular system allows more restrictions upon spell-casting character types, of course, while allowing freedom to assign certain spells to lower difficulty factors to keep the character type viable in its early stages. It also has the distinct advantages of requiring that spell-users select their magic prior to knowing what they must face, and limiting bookkeeping to a simple list of spells which are crossed off as expended.
The mnemonic spell system can be explained briefly thus: Magic works because certain key words and phrases (sounds) unlock energy from elsewhere. The sounds are inscribed in arcane texts or religious works available to spell-users. Only training and practice will allow increased memory capacity, thus allowing more spells to be used. Once uttered, the sounds discharge their power, and this discharge not only unlocks energy from elsewhere, but it also wipes all memory of the particular words or phrases from the speaker’s brain. Finally, the energy manifested by the speaking of the sounds will take a set form, depending on the pronunciation and order of the sounds. So a Sleep spell or a Charm Monster spell is uttered and the magic effected, the mind is wiped clean of the memory of what the sounds were, but by careful concentration and study later, the caster can again memorize these keys.
When the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game system was in the conceptual stage, I realized that while the “Vancian” system was the best approach to spell-casting in fantasy adventure games, the DUNGEONS & DRAGONS system did not go far enough in defining, delineating, and restricting its use. Merely having words was insufficient, so elements of other systems would have to be added to make a better system. While it could be similar in concept to D&D® spellcasting, it had to be quite different in all aspects, including practice, in order to bring it up to a higher level of believability and playability with respect to other classes.
The AD&D magic system was therefore predicated on the concept that there were three power-trigger keys — the cryptic utterances, hypnotic gestures, and special substances — the verbal, somatic, and material components, possible in various combinations, which are needed to effect magic. This aspect is less “Vancian,” if you will, but at the same time the system overall is more so, for reasons you will see later.
Verbal spell components, the energy-charged special words and phrases, are necessary in most spells. These special sounds are not general knowledge, and each would-be spell- caster must study in order to even begin to comprehend their reading, meaning, and pronunciation, i.e., undergo an apprenticeship. The basic assumption of this training is the ability to actually handle such matter; this ability is expressed in intelligence or wisdom minimums for each appropriate spell-using profession.
Somatic spell components, the ritual gestures which also draw the power, must also be learned and practiced. This manual skill is less important in clericism, where touching or the use of a holy/unholy symbol is generally all that is involved, while in the illusionist class it is of great importance, as much of the spell power is connected with redirection of mental energy.
Material components are also generally needed. This expansion into sympathetic magic follows the magic portrayed by L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt in their superb “Harold Shea” stories, for example. Of course, it is a basic part of primitive magic systems practiced by mankind. In general, some certain material or materials are also needed to complete the flow of power from the spell-caster, which in turn will draw energy from some other place and cause the spell to happen.
In order to obtain greater spell capabilities, the spell-caster must do considerable studying, and he or she must also have source material to study. The AD&D system assumes that such material is hard to come by, and even if a spell-casterr is capable of knowing/memorizing many and high-level spells, he or she must find them (in the case of magic-users and illusionists) or have the aid of deities or minions thereof (in the situation faced by clerics and druids). These strictures apply to other professions which are empowered with spell use, as appropriate to the type of spells in question. In order to expand mnemonic capacity, spell-users must do further study and be trained. Thus, the system is in some ways more “Vancian," as such information and studies are indicated, if not necessarily detailed, in the works of that author. It might also be said that the system takes on “Lovecraftian" overtones, harkening to tomes of arcane and dread lore.
为了获得更大的法术能力,施咒者必须进行大量的学习,他或她也必须有来源材料来学习。AD&D系统假设这样的材料很难得到,即使一个拼写- casterr能够知道/记住许多高级法术,他/她必须找到他们(在magic - users和illusiUNK的例子中),或者得到神的帮助(在牧师和德鲁伊教的情况下)。这些限制适用于其他有法术的职业,适用于问题的类型。为了扩大记忆能力,拼写使用者必须进行进一步的学习和训练。因此,在某种程度上,系统在某种程度上更像“van”,因为这样的信息和研究在作者的著作中被指出,即使不一定详细。也可以说,这个系统采用了“爱克拉夫提”的泛音,对神秘和恐惧的传说进行了反复的强调。
In addition to the strictures on locating the information for new spells, and the acquisition of the ability to cast (new, more powerful) spells, the requirements of verbal, somatic, and material components in most spell-casting highlight the following facts regarding the interruption and spoiling of spells: Silencing the caster will generally ruin the spell or prevent its instigation. Any interruption of the somatic gestures — such as is accomplished by a successful blow, grappling, overbearing, or even severe jostling — likewise spoils the magic. Lack of material components, or the alteration or spoiling thereof, will similarly cause the spell to come to naught.
Of course, this assumes the spell has the appropriate verbal, somatic, or material components. Some few spells have only a verbal component, fewer still only verbal and material components, a handful only somatic and material, and just one has a somatic component alone. (Which fact will most certainly change if I ever have the opportunity to add to the list of illusionists’ spells, for on reflection, I am convinced that this class should have more spells of somatic component only —but that’s another story.)
All of these triggers mean that it is both more difficult to cast a spell, especially when the new casting-time restrictions are taken into account, and easier to interrupt a spell before it is successfully cast.
Consider the casting of a typical spell with V, S, and M components. When the caster has opportunity and the desire to cast a spell, he or she must utter the special energy-charged sound patterns attendant to the magic, gesture appropriately, and hold or discard the material component(s) as necessary to finally effect the spell. Ignoring the appropriate part or parts, all spells are cast thus, the time of conjuration to effect the dweomer varying from but a single segment to many minutes or tens of minutes. These combinations allow a more believable magic system, albeit the requirements placed upon spell-casters are more stringent, and even that helps greatly to balance play from profession to profession.
A part and parcel of the AD&D magic system is the general classification of each spell by its effect. That is, whether the spell causes an alteration, is a conjuration/summoning, enchantment! charm, etc. This grouping enables ease of adjudication of changes of spell effects or negation of power. It also makes it easier to classify new spells by using the grouping.
It seems inevitable that the classification and component functions will eventually lead to further extrapolation. The energy triggers of sound and motion will be categorized and defined in relation to the class of dweomer to be effected. This will indicate from whence the magic actually comes, i.e., from what location or plane of existence the end result of a successfully cast spell actually comes. Perhaps this will lead to a spellcasting character having to actually speak a rime, in addition (perhaps) to indicating what special movements are to be made, and how material components are to be used. While this is not seriously proposed for the play of a "normal” game, the wherewithal to do so will probably be available to DMs whose participants are so inclined.
It all has a more important and useful purpose, however. Defining the energy triggers will make it possible to matrix combinations by class of spell-caster and dweomer group. Mispronounced spells, or research into new spells, will become far more interesting in many ways if and when such information is available and put into use!
As it now stands, the AD&D magic system is a combination of reputed magic drawn from works of fiction and from myth. Although they are not defined, verbal and somatic components are necessary energy-triggers. The memorization of these special sounds and motions is difficult, and when they are properly used, they release their small stores of energy to trigger power from elsewhere. This release totally wipes all memory of sound and/or motion from the memory of the spell caster, but it does not otherwise seriously affect his or her brain — although the mnemonic exercise of learning them in the first place is unquestionably taxing. Duplicates of the same spell can be remembered also, but the cast spell is gone until its source is again carefully perused.
The new form which spell casting has taken in the AD&D game has a more realistic flavor to it — unimportant, but some players revel in this sort of thing, and that is well enough. Of real importance, however, is the fact that it requires far more effort from spell-casters in gaining, preparing, and casting spells. It makes them more vulnerable to attacks which spoil the casting of the spell. All in all, it tends to make each and every profession possible for characters in an AD&D game to be more equal to, but still very different from, all of the others. Lastly, it opens up new areas where new development can be done at some future time, and if such new material adds significantly to the enjoyment of the game, it will certainly be published — perhaps first in experimental form herein, then possibly in final form in a revised edition of the work itself.
If the foregoing doesn't completely explain everything you or your players wish to know about the AD&D magic system; if after all of those words there are still unanswered questions, doubt, or disputes, remember the last and overriding principle of the whole: It's magic!
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #32 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:11:55 »

There seems to be a continuing misunderstanding amongst a segment of ADVANCED D&D® players as to what the term “good” actually means. This problem does cut both ways, of course, for if good is not clearly defined, how can evil be known? Moral and ethical precepts are based on religious doctrines, secular laws, family teachings, and individual perceptions of these combined tenets. It might be disturbing if one reflected deeply upon the whys and wherefores of the singular inability of so many players to determine for themselves the rights and wrongs of good behavior — unless one related this inability to the fact that the game is fantasy and therefore realized (rationalized?) that this curious lack must stem from the inability to draw a parallel between daily life and the imagined milieu. In order to clear the record immediately, then, and define the term “good” for all participants, it means everything defined in the dictionary as augmented and modified by one’s moral and ethical upbringing and the laws of the land!
Gentle Reader, if you are in doubt about a certain action —and this applies particularly to all who play rangers and paladins — relate it to your real life. It is most probable that what is considered “good” in reality can be “good” in fantasy. The reverse is not quite so true, so I’ll quantify things a bit.
Good does not mean stupid, even if your DM tries to force that concept upon you. Such assertions are themselves asinine, and those who accept such dictates are stupid. To quantify “good,” however, we must also consider the three modifiers in the AD&D™ alignment system: 1) lawful; 2) neutral; and 3) chaotic.
1)   The lawful perception of good dictates that the order which promotes the greatest good for the greatest number is best. It further postulates that disorder brings results which erode the capability of bestowing good to the majority. Therefore, without law and order, good pales into nothingness.
2)   Good from the neutral perception is perhaps the purest sort, in that it cares not for order or individual freedom above overall good, so there are no constraints upon the definition of what is good. Whatever accomplishes the good result is acceptable, and the means used should not be so fixed as to bring bad to any creature if an alternative way exists which accomplishes the desired good without bringing ill to others — or better still, brings good to all in one degree or another.
3)   The chaotic views good from an individual standpoint, of necessity. The very stuff of chaos is individual volition, freedom from all constraints, the right of person above all else. Good is first and foremost applied to self; thereafter to those surrounding self; lastly to those furthest removed from self — a ripple effect, if you will. It is important to understand that “good” for self must not mean “bad” for others, although the “good” for self might not bring like benefits to others — or any benefit at all, for that matter. However, the latter case is justifiable as “good” only if it enables the individual to be in a better position to bring real “good” to others within the foreseeable future.
One of the advantages of the AD&D environment over the real world is that we do have pretty clear definitions of good and evil — if not conceptually (as is evident from the necessity of this article), at least nominally. Characters and monsters alike bear handy labels to allow for easy identification of their moral and ethical standing. Black is black, gray is gray, white is white. There are intensities of black, degrees of grayness, and shades of white, but the big tags are there to read nonetheless.
The final arbiter in any campaign is the DM, the person who figuratively puts in the fine print on these alignment labels, but he or she must follow the general outlines of the rule book or else face the fact that his or her campaign is not an AD&D campaign. Furthermore, participants in such a campaign can cease playing. That is the surest and most vocal manner in which to demonstrate displeasure with the conduct of a referee. In effect, the labels and their general meanings are defined in the AD&D rules, and the details must be scribed by the group participating.
Perceptions of good vary according to age, culture, and theological training. A child sees no good in punishment meted out by parents — let us say for playing with matches. Cultural definitions of good might call for a loud belch after eating, or the killing of any person who performs some taboo act. Theological definitions of good are as varied as cultural definitions, and then some, for culture is affected by and affects religion, and there are more distinct religious beliefs than there are distinct cultures. It is impossible, then, for one work to be absolute in its delineation of good and evil, law and chaos, and the middle ground between (if such can exist in reality). This does not, however, mean that "good” can be anything desired,and anyone who tells you, in effect, that good means stupid, deserves a derisive jeer (at least).
The Sage Advice column in issue #36 of DRAGON™ magazine (April 1980) contained some interesting questions and answers regarding “good” as related to paladins and rangers. Let us examine these in light of the foregoing:
A player with a paladin character asked if this character could “put someone to death (who) is severely scarred and doesn't want to live.” Although the reply given in Sage Advice was a strong negative, it is suggested here that the actual truth of the matter might lie somewhere else. The player does not give the name of the deity served by the paladin. This is the key to lawful good behavior in AD&D terms. Remember that “good” can be related to reality often, but not always. It might also relate to good as perceived in the past, actual or mythical. In the latter case, a paladin could well force conversion at sword point, and, once acceptance of "the true way" was expressed, dispatch the new convert on the spot. This assures that the prodigal will not return to the former evil ways, sends the now-saved spirit on to a better place, and incidentally rids the world of a potential troublemaker. Such actions are "good,” in these ways:
1.   Evil is abridged (by at least one creature).
2.   Good has gained a convert.
3.   The convert now has hope for rewards (rather than torment) in the afterlife.
4.   The good populace is safer (by a factor of at least 1).
It is therefore possible for a paladin to, in fact, actually perform a "mercy killing” such as the inquiring player asked about, provided the tenets of his or her theology permitted it. While unlikely, it is possible.
Another case in point was that of a player with a paladin character who wishes to marry and begin a lineage. Again, our Sage Advice suggests a negative. While many religions forbid wedlock and demand celibacy, this is by no means universal. The key is again the deity served, of course. DMs not using particular, specific deities will harken back to the origin of the term “paladin" and realize that celibacy is not a condition of that sort of paladin-hood. Also, although the Roman Catholic church demands celibacy of its priests, the doctrines of Judeo- Christianity hold matrimony and the bearing and rearing of children as holy and proper, i.e. “good." So unless a particular deity demands celibacy of its fighter-minions, there is no conceivable reason for a paladin not to marry and raise children. This is a matter for common sense — and the DM, who, if he or she is not arbitrary, will probably agree with the spirit of the game and allow marriage and children. (This must be a long- range campaign, or else its participants are preoccupied with unusual aspects of the game. No matter....)
The third inquiry concerned a ranger character. The writer claimed that his or her DM combined with a lawful good ranger to insist that a wounded wyvern was to be protected, not slain, unless it attacked the party. Here is a classic case of players being told that (lawful) good equates with stupidity. To assert that a man-killing monster with evil tendencies should be protected by a lawful good ranger is pure insanity. How many lives does this risk immediately? How many victims are condemned to death later? In short, this is not “good” by any accepted standards! It is much the same as sparing a rabid dog or a rogue elephant or a man-eating tiger.
If good is carefully considered, compared to and contrasted with evil, then common sense will enable most, if not all, questions regarding the behavior of paladins and rangers to be settled on the spot. Consideration of the character’s deity is of principal merit after arriving at an understanding of good. Thereafter, campaign "world" moral and ethical teachings on a cultural basis must rule. These concepts might be drawn from myth or some other source. What matters is that a definition of “good” is established upon intelligent and reasonable grounds. Viewpoints do differ, so absolutes (especially in a game) are both undesirable and impossible.
Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #33 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:13:13 »

JUNE 1979: #26
by Lenard Lakofka
Liches are high-level clerics or magic-users who have become very special undead. Before becoming a lich, the cleric or magic-user must have been at least 14th level in life, although 18th level is most common. Once a lich is created, it might drop in level, but below 10th level one cannot exist.
Preparation for lichdom occurs while the figure is still alive and must be completed before his first "death.” If he dies somewhere along the line and is resurrected, then he must start all over again.
The would-be lich needs these spells: Magic Jar, Trap the Soul, and Enchant an Item, plus a special potion and something to “jar” into.
The item into which the lich will "jar” is prepared by having Enchant an Item cast upon it. The item cannot be of the common variety, but must be of high quality, solid, and of at least 2,000gp in value. The item must make a saving throw as if it were the person casting the spell. (A cleric would have to have the spells Enchant an Item and Magic Jar cast for him, and it is the contracted magic-user’s level that would be used for the saving throw.) The item can contain prior magics, but wooden items are not acceptable.
If the item is then soul-receptive, the prepared candidate for lichdom will cast (or have cast) Magic Jar on it and enter the item. As soon as he enters the jar he will lose a level — and the corresponding hit points — at once. The hit points and his soul are now stored in the jar. He then must return to his own body and must rest for 2-7 days. The ordeal is so demanding that his top three levels of spells are erased and will not come back (through reading/prayer) until the rest period is over.
The next time the character dies, regardless of circumstances, he will go into the jar, no matter how far away and no matter what the obstacles (including Cubes of Force, Prismatic Spheres, lead boxes, etc.). To get out again, the magic- user/cleric must have his (or another’s) recently dead body within 90 feet of the jar. The body can be that of any recently killed creature, from a mouse to a ki-rin. The corpse must fail its saving throw vs. magic to be possessed. The saving throw is that of a one-half hit die figure for a normal man, animal, small monster, etc., regardless of alignment, if the figure had three or fewer hit dice in life. If it had four or more hit dice, it gains one of the following saving throws, according to alignment: lawful good, chaotic good or neutral good — normal saving throw as in life; lawful neutral, chaotic neutral or true neutral — saving throw as in life, but at -3; lawful evil — saving throw at -4; neutral evil — saving throw at -5; and chaotic evil — saving throw at -6. The corpse can be dead no longer than 30 days. If it makes its saving throw, it will never receive the lich. The magic- user/cleric’s own corpse can be dead any length of time and is at -10 to receive him. He may attempt to enter his own corpse once each week until he succeeds.
If the lich enters another's corpse, he will have the limited abilities of the corpse when it comes to physical strength. Intelligence and wisdom will be his own, regardless of what the corpse had. It can have no more than four hit dice, and will behave as a wight, but has no energy-draining ability. If the corpse could cast spells in life, then the possessed corpse may also do so — up to, but not beyond, the 4th level of spell ability. The wightish body will have telepathic abilities if the body it came from could speak when it was alive.
In the wightish body, the lich will seek his own body and transport it to the location of the jar. Destruction of his own body is possible only via the spell Disintegrate, and the body gets a normal saving throw vs. the spell. Dismemberment or burning of the body will not destroy it; the remains of the corpse will radiate an unlimited range Locate Object spell. Naturally, it may be difficult for the lich to obtain all these pieces/ashes, but that is another story. If and when the wightish body finds the remains of the lich’s original body, it will eat them and after one week will metamorphose into a humanoid body similar to the lich’s original body. Once the lich is back in his own body he will have the spells he had in life and never has to read/pray for them again. In fact he cannot, except once to “fill up” his spell levels. As a lich, he can never gain levels, use scrolls, or use magic items that require the touch of a living being.
巫妖将会“jar”的物品是通过在它上面施放一个物品来准备的。该产品不能是普通品种,但必须具有高质量、固体和至少2000 gp的价值。这个项目必须要有一个豁免的投掷,就好像是那个施法的人。(一名牧师必须为他施魔法,并为他施放一种魔法罐子,而这正是他所使用的魔法-用户级别,用于拯救生命。)这个项目可以包含先前的魔法,但是木制品是不能接受的。
如果这个项目是灵魂接受的,准备好的lichdom的候选人将会在它上面浇上(或已经浇铸)魔法Jar,然后进入这个项目。一旦他进入瓶子,他将立即失去一个等级和相应的命中点。击中点和他的灵魂现在储存在罐子里。然后他必须回到自己的身体,必须休息2 - 7天。这一严酷的考验要求他的前三次法术都被抹去了,直到剩下的时间结束,他才会回来(通过阅读和祈祷)。
下一次,无论环境如何,角色死亡时,不管有多远,不管遇到什么障碍(包括力量方块、棱镜球、铅盒等),他都会进入罐子。为了再次出去,魔法用户/牧师必须把他(或其他人的)最近的尸体放在罐子的90英尺内。身体可以是最近被杀死的生物,从老鼠到基林。死尸必须通过它的豁免检定和魔法才能被占有。拯救球是一个正常的人,动物,小怪物等的半命中死亡数字,无论队列如何,如果这个数字有3个或更少的命中骰子。如果它有4个或更多的命中骰子,它会得到以下的一个节省的投掷,根据对齐:合法的好,混乱的好或中立的好-正常的救球和在生活中一样;合法的中立、混乱的中立或真正的中立的豁免,如在生命中,但在- 3;合法的邪恶-豁免投- 4;中性邪恶-豁免投掷- 5;和混乱的邪恶-豁免投掷在- 6。尸体的死亡时间不超过30天。如果它能节省时间,它就永远不会收到巫妖。魔法使用者/牧师自己的尸体可以在任何一段时间内死去,并在- 10时接收他。他可能会试图每周进入他自己的尸体,直到他成功。
Each time the lich returns his life force to the jar, it always costs him a level. When he drops to 10th level, any subsequent return to the jar destroys the lich. The lich will try to teleport back to the jar, however, before he is “killed" (that is, before he goes to zero hit points). If he does go to zero points, he is destroyed forever! If he has the spell Teleport, the lich can transport his body, also, but just his “life force” goes back into the jar. (He does not, however, need the spell Teleport to get just his life force back to the jar, although if he loses his body in this manner, he must start the search for it all over again.)
If his body is disintegrated then the lich can only be a wightish body unless he can find someone to cast a Wish for him to get the body back together again. The jar must be on the Prime Material, the Negative Material, or the Positive Material Plane and of course he must have a means of gaining access to the appropriate plane in the first place.
A living person will never radiate anything that will indicate he is prepared for lichdom. No Charm will ever make him tell this fact or where his jar is hidden! However, a Charm can make him tell whafthejar is. In like manner, Locate an Object will not find a lich's jar unless a deity-rank figure is willing to cast the spell and its range is limited to 100 miles in only one plane!
The lich must find a means of continual access if he places his jar on another plane. Hirelings can be charmed (paid) to keep a supply of dead (less than 30 days) bodies at his disposal, but that is risky. A jar hidden too well may never offer a corpse for him to enter. A lich may elect to commit suicide to save himself a lot of trouble later on.
Preparing the body of the living figure is done via a potion. The potion is difficult to make and very time-consuming. It requires these items:
2 pinches of pure arsenic
1 pinch of belladonna
1 measure of fresh phase spider venom (less than 30 days old)
1 measure of fresh wyvern venom (less than 60 days old)
The blood of a humanoid killed by a phase spider
The blood of a humanoid killed by a mixture of arsenic and belladonna
The heart of a humanoid killed by wyvern venom
1 quart of blood from a vampire or a person infected with vampirism
The ground-up reproductive glands of 7 giant moths (dead for less than 60 days)
The items are mixed in the order given by the light of a full moon. When the figure drinks the potion (all of it at once), the following things may occur:
01-10 No effect whatsoever, other than all body hair falling out; start over!
11-40 Fall into coma for 2-7 days. The potion works.
41-70 Feebleminded until dispelled by Dispel Magic. Each attempt to remove the feeblemind has a 10% chance to kill instead if it fails. The potion works. 71-90 Paralyzed for 4-14 days. 30% chance that permanent loss of 1 -6 dexterity points will result. The potion works.
91-96 Permanently deaf, dumb or blind. Only a Wish can regain the sense. The potion works.
97-00 Dead. Start over... if you can be resurrected.
1 .新鲜蜘蛛毒液的测量方法(不到30天)
01- 10无效果,除全身毛发脱落外;重新开始!
11- 40昏迷2 - 7天。药剂的作品。
41- 70的意志薄弱,直到驱散魔法。每一次尝试去除掉弱者都有10%的机会去杀死,如果失败了。药剂的作品。71- 90瘫痪4 - 14天。有30%的几率永久丧失1 - 6个敏捷点。药剂的作品。
91- 96永远聋、哑或瞎。只有愿望才能重获理智。药剂的作品。
97 - 00死了。重新开始…如果你能复活。

Play for fun.

离线 Victor

  • 根源探寻者
  • 版主
  • *
  • 帖子数: 506
  • 苹果币: 3
Re: VV的读书笔记
« 回帖 #34 于: 2018-01-18, 周四 22:14:10 »

The politics of Hell
by Alexander von Thorn
(Author’s note: The following article cannot be considered the official doctrine of either the ADVANCED DUNGEONS & DRAGONS® game or the Roman Catholic Church. However, it is compatible with the AD&D® rules, and except for the parts about Asmodeus it is not in conflict with works on demonology as generally accepted by Catholic exorcists, thus enjoying tacit approval by the Church. However, this article does not have a nihil obstat: Much of it is original, and it approaches the subject from a different angle than a religious tract would, and should not be considered as such. The rise of Asmodeus is not documented in any major text on demonology, but very little original work on the subject has been done since the Middle Ages, so it is possible that the situation has changed. Perhaps Mr. Gygax has more accurate sources of information...)
Once upon a time, there were no devils. Only God and the angels were in heaven. (The term God is used to refer to the Creator of the Universe. He is called Yahweh by some, Allah by others, and is known by many other names.) The most powerful, most intelligent, and most beautiful of all the angels was called Satan. He was given these traits by God in order to carry out the most arduous task among all the angels — that of testing the merit of mortal men.
Satan used temptation and suffering to try to get men to choose evil instead of good. He usually succeeded in his work, because most men had something (or someone) which they held near and dear, over and above considerations of ethics, and so Satan came to hold the majority of mankind in contempt.
Satan was not happy in his work, because he had to cause the downfall of many men who otherwise would have led relatively blameless lives. Sometimes he had to cause great suffering in the lives of good men, like Job, which he didn’t like to do, either. Job had done nothing to deserve the problems that Satan gave him, and Satan came to feel sorry for Job and those like him.
Satan felt that God was being unfair. In coming to the conclusion, he valued his own judgement above the wisdom of God. His thinking gradually came around to the idea that there were better ways of organizing the universe than the way God had set it up. He came to think that he could do a better job than God. Satan discussed his ideas with other angels, and many agreed that he had some valid points.
Eventually, Satan challenged God, and many angels supported him. But God and his supporters were victorious, and Satan and his supporters were sentenced to hell for all eternity unless they repented their sins. Satan responded, “Better to rule in hell than to serve in heaven!” With that, he passed to hell in a brilliant flash, and from that time on his followers, human and supernatural, gave him the name of Lucifer, "Prince of Light,” and the star of the morning was named for him. The French claim that when Satan passed through the earthly plane en route from heaven to hell, he went down through the island of Mont St. Michel, off the coast of Brittany.
Some scholars theorize that the influence of the devils, who were now actively working against God and good, was the reason that God sent his son to Earth, although that belief is not universal among Christians. However, parts of the Book of Isaiah which refer to a Messiah are thought to have been written during the Babylonian exile of the Jews, which happened shortly after the fall of the devils (at least as far as this writer can figure out). It is also said that God misses Satan, and that He hopes that he will repent and ask God’s forgiveness, which of course He will grant to any of the fallen angels (although God may require some service to be performed, in order to test their rededication to the cause of righteousness. It is thought that it is this possibility that holds many of the devils back from repentance. Whatever the reason, no devil has ever repented).
And so, Satan became the lord of hell. All the devils worked for the damnation of men and the promulgation of evil and suffering. Satan found it ridiculously easy to accomplish anything he wanted, using his talents of temptation and suffering. The mere threat of his immense power kept the other devils in line. A group of humans who were obsessed by power, or evil, or both, developed a cult around Satan, and they set up a tight hierarchy in order to pursue their goals through evil. Even some of the illiterate peasants occasionally said a prayer to Satan when God didn't seem to answer their prayers.
最终,撒旦挑战了上帝,许多天使支持他。但是,上帝和他的支持者们都取得了胜利,而撒旦和他的支持者们却被判了地狱,除非他们忏悔他们的罪恶。撒但回答说:“在地狱里掌权,胜过在天上事奉。”于是,他灵光一闪,从他的追随者、人类和超自然的人那里,给他起名叫路西法的名字,“光明之王”,而晨星就是以他的名字命名的。法国人声称,当撒旦从天堂到地狱的途中经过尘世的飞机时,他穿过了布列塔尼海岸外的蒙特圣米歇尔岛(Mont st . Michel)。
The forces of evil were strong, and flourished in the ignorance of the Dark Ages. Satan schemed and plotted, for he believed that he had simply been outmaneuvered by the forces of good because he had failed to plan his first assault properly. He felt that if he took the time to develop a strategy, to take advantage of his own strengths and minimize his forces’ weaknesses, while capitalizing on the weaknesses and neutralizing the strengths of the enemy, then he had a good shot at winning the final conflict.
But Satan was an arbitrary ruler. He took it for granted that all the fallen angels would follow him without question. However, some of the other devils were also proud, and they did not agree with all the orders Satan gave, just as they had (like Satan) disagreed with God. Beelzebub, in particular, felt that he and the other devils should have more of a free hand in encouraging acts of evil, and more of a say in matters of general policy in hell. Beelzebub discussed this with the other important devils — Adramelech, Astaroth, Moloch, Nergal, Amaimon, Belphegor, and many others — and most agreed with Beelzebub, after promises of more power and freedom under a new order. The others were noncommittal, for they were afraid of the wrath of Satan and would not speak against Satan even in private, although they did not reveal Beelzebub’s plan to Satan. Those devils who supported Beelzebub would once in a while question a minor order from Satan, or neglect to perform a trivial task. When these rebels were discovered, Satan sent Belial, his personal lieutenant, to deal with them. Belial became hated by the other devils and at the same time grew in the esteem of Satan.
Eventually, Beelzebub challenged Satan, and when it was seen that more of the powerful devils supported Beelzebub, the other devils flocked to his cause, leaving only Belial on the side of Satan.
So Satan and Belial became exiles from hell, forced to find other places within the multiverse to hide out and make their abode, while Beelzebub became the new lord of hell. With Belial gone, Moloch became the new supreme commander of the armies of hell, and Asmodeus became the devil in charge of politicians and bureaucrats, while Adramelech became second in the overall hierarchy after Beelzebub, serving as chancellor of hell, which was the equivalent of a prime minister of a government of which Beelzebub was the president or king.
However, the armies of hell remained secretly loyal to Belial, and they helped him whenever they had the opportunity to do so without being caught. Also, Belial kept his old contacts, and retained a great deal of his influence with politicians and bureaucrats for some time. Satan, for his part, remained very powerful, because the covens remained faithful to him. In fact, most people (including the majority of the clergy) were not aware of the change in the leadership of hell. To this day, when people think of “The Devil,” they think of Satan, and if the name of any devil is mentioned in a Catholic sacramental ritual, it is his (e.g., when the celebrant asks, “Do you reject Satan?" etc.).
Of course, the exorcists and demonologists knew about the change, and after the fall of Satan his name was left out of the hierarchies compiled by them. The time of this event is not certain, but evidence suggests that it probably occcurred at about the time of the Renaissance. Indeed, it may have been partially responsible for the Renaissance, because Satan had tried to keep mankind steeped in mystery and ignorance, while Beelzebub thought that new areas of knowledge could lead to new forms of evil. During the Middle Ages, warfare had been a very personal affair. Lords battled over matters of vengeance, or family honor, or simple greed. They were followed by loyal men-at-arms and their bows, and everyone went home at harvest time. Then came the rise of national empires, and men were drafted into armies in the names of kings they’d never seen, to fight with guns and cannons over matters of politics, or religion, or just strategic objectives. Arbitrary and capricious monarchs gave way to systematic dictatorships of terror. Ignorance and superstition were replaced by science and technology totally devoid of morality. Of course, things were not so bad in every respect, but Beelzebub does seem to have made his point.
However, Beelzebub had difficulty controlling the devils. He could not order them about the way Satan had, because he had gained power by promising more freedom of action. In fact, some of the more powerful arch-devils told him (in a roundabout way) that his authority would be in jeopardy if he tried to assert himself too much. So, the only means that Beelzebub could use to get things done in hell were by persuasion or by doing favors for the devils. Needless to say, these were not enough, even if Beelzebub had had the time to talk to all the arch-devils in order to explain why things had to be done, or to do all the errands that he had to do to get things done. The devils ended up aiding humans against each other, with little coordination, so that they fell into disrepute because they could not fulfill their conflicting promises. Beelzebub’s attempts to restore order were futile because the more powerful arch-devils would not agree with Beelzebub on how to resolve some of the more important conflicts. In fact, some of them preferred to let the situation deteriorate so that they could increase their personal power.
Also, the spirit of anticlericism and atheism that the devils had succeeded in creating worked against them; people rejected the idea of devils, writing them off as mere superstition, when they rejected the idea of a God.
Many devils were dissatisfied with the rule of Beelzebub, but there was no apparent successor. Astaroth, the next most powerful devil, was happy in his role as treasurer of hell, and he almost always achieved his objectives without needing the mantle of authority that came with being lord of hell. Adramelech was not a very personally strong devil, and he was rather ineffectual when things were as disorganized as they were. Dispater and Geryon were strong, but they lacked the necessary talents of leadership. Most of the other arch-devils were satisfied to increase their power at the expense of Beelzebub's, because they thought that the position of lord of hell was a thankless job, and that if someone with less sheer power than Beelzebub held the post, hell would be worse off than it already was.
However, one figure — Asmodeus, one of the lesser archdevils — felt differently. He was like an administrative assistant to Amaimon, the devil in command of the largest of the four armies of hell. Asmodeus took care of non-military matters for Amaimon. He was also the devil in charge of politicians and bureaucrats, as noted previously, and with the rise of democracies in the 18th and 19th centuries, the influence of Asmodeus became even greater.
Asmodeus was a master of deception, and he had great skill in finding things out (especially concealed treasures), which were invaluable traits in dealing with politicians. Asmodeus was therefore well known in hell, and he was well informed on important matters in hell, but most devils saw him as a minor functionary in the upper echelons of hell. However, the skills of diplomacy and negotiation which he had developed in order to better help human politicians were very useful in hell, because of the disorganized, uncertain situation there. More and more often, Asmodeus found himself mediating disputes and helping to form a consensus among the devils on important policy matters. The devils came to respect his judgement, and set him to organizing some of the more important projects.
With this visible support to reinforce him, Asmodeus decided that his administrative skills were just what hell needed. So he approached some of the more powerful devils and suggested that he might make a better ruler than Beelzebub. Support for his plan in the upper echelon was lukewarm at first, so he sweetened the proposal by doing a number of one-shot favors, or promising to do something that individual devils especially wanted. After a while, many devils came to side with him, but a significant number still thought that Beelzebub’s power was necessary to maintain any semblance of order in hell.
Asmodeus found a solution: He promised to keep Beelzebub in hell at the top of the hierarchy, second only to himself. The devils agreed to support him so long as they did not have to resort to violence, promising in return that they would, if necessary, refuse to obey Beelzebub’s orders in a show of solidarity. Even Astaroth agreed that Asmodeus would probably be a more capable ruler.
With the support of the devils assured, Asmodeus revealed his plan to the lord. Asmodeus demanded that Beelzebub voluntarily reduce his personal strength in order to prevent any possible future challenges to his authority, and that he change his name from Beelzebub, meaning "Prince of Devils,” to Baal- zebul, meaning “Lord of the Flies” (i.e. little devils). The reason for that was so that the old rituals of power invoking the old name would not work. Beelzebub was enraged with that, and almost attacked Asmodeus, until Asmodeus told Beelzebub to see which side the other arch-devils, such as Astaroth, were on. Beelzebub hesitated, and then reconsidered his attack. He summoned Astaroth. Upon his arrival, Astaroth greeted them with, “Hello, Baalzebul. Hello, Lord Asmodeus.” And with that, Beelzebub knew that he had been overthrown.
Thus it was that Asmodeus became lord of hell. Shortly thereafter, the “war to end all wars” was fought, and then came Mussolini and Hitler, the death camps and purges, the A-bomb and other atrocities in a war that claimed more than 15 million soldiers in battle and countless other lives. One could say that Asmodeus has known some success.
Through his politicking and playing one devil off against another, Asmodeus manages to keep a fairly tight rein on the activities of the devils. Baalzebul still secretly schemes to retake his former position, and there are a few other devils now who think that they could handle the leadership of hell, but none have yet dared to openly oppose the rule of Asmodeus.
Asmodeus has reorganized hell to suit his purposes. Satan had originally divided hell into nine distinct planes, in order to keep track of which damned soul went where. Asmodeus has dispensed with the old structuring and doled out the planes as sort of fiefdoms under his suzerainty. He kept the ninth plane as his personal demesne and granted the sixth and seventh to Baalzebul, out of respect for his previous service, making him the only devil to rule two entire planes personally. Dispater and Geryon were also granted entire planes because they were the first to support Asmodeus, and they have since been his most loyal followers. The other planes are divided among the other six dozen or so arch-devils. Astaroth was offered a plane, but he declined the responsibility.
Asmodeus has used his position to increase his personal strength to the point that he is now the most powerful devil to be found on the nine planes of hell. This is unheard of, but it was barely possible by the laws of the multiverse because the departure of Satan and Belial from hell and the reduction in strength that Baalzebul was forced to suffer left a slight imbalance in the multiverse which Asmodeus used to increase his own strength. And so, all the planes of hell are now securely under the dominion of Lord Asmodeus.
在魔鬼的支持下,阿斯莫德斯向上帝透露了他的计划。Asmodeus要求Beelzebub自愿减少他的个人力量,以防止将来对他的权威有任何可能的挑战,并且他将他的名字从Beelzebub,也就是“恶魔之王”的意思转变为Baal - zebul,意思是“苍蝇王”(即小恶魔)。这样做的原因是旧的权力仪式不会起作用。魔王被激怒了,几乎要攻击阿斯莫德斯,直到阿斯莫德斯告诉别西卜,看看其他的大恶魔,比如阿斯达特,在哪里。Beelzebub犹豫了一下,然后重新考虑了他的攻击。他召唤了Astaroth。在他到来的时候,阿斯塔罗斯向他们打招呼:“你好,Baalzebul。”你好,主魔王”。于是,别西卜知道他被打倒了。

The Politics of Hell:
Original layout, August 1979; issue # 28

More Masters of Deviltry   Satan
FREQUENCY   Very rare
MOVE   Whatever desired
HIT DICE   333 hit points
% IN LAIR   5%
TREASURE TYPE   H(*2), l(*2), U(*2)
SPECIAL ATTACKS   +3 or better weapon and purity of heart required to hit
ALIGNMENT   Lawful evil
SIZE   Variable
Attack/Defense Modes   Special
Satan ("The Prince of Darkness,” “The Adversary,” Lucifer, “The Prince of Light’’): First among devils, Satan is a being feared by all. He can appear in any form he wishes, but the form he prefers is that of a normal man, having features which are most likely to engender trust and respect from the person he is dealing with. In places where he is master (which are rare these days, although becoming more common), he will appear in roughly humanoid form, about 7' tall, with horns, tail and pitch- fork and having a deep red skin color, almost maroon, with a majestic countenance. He can move as fast as he wants to, and he can accurately teleport, cross dimensions or even travel through time if need be. In order to strike Satan with a weapon, the attacker would need a +3 weapon to hit him, and he would also have to have a clear conscience and an absolute determination to pursue one’s objective, which of course must be of the purest motives. Anyone who dares to attack Satan psionically will automatically fall into his control forever (a Wish can recover an individual, but nothing less will do). Of course, Satan cannot be affected by a psionic attack, but he will not use normal psionic attack modes. Satan may use any spell or psionic discipline as often as he likes. He cast spells as if he was a 30th-level character, except for druidic spells, which he casts at 14th level of ability. He has an effective psionic ability of 500, although he does not actually use any points when employing psionic powers.
Satan also has the ability to alter fate, in order to cause a number of unfortunate events to happen to an individual, such as the death of friends and family and the ruin of business, career, property, social status, reputation and health, to start with. Fortunately, however, for the victim, if he remains resolute in the face of this suffering, the forces of good will eventually relieve his problems in order to maintain the balance of the multiverse, although the victim may not receive any compensation for the trouble he has gone through.
Satan's main ability is the power of temptation. He can grant anyone a wish that will give that person anything he desires. All he has to do is sign a little contract, using his own blood in lieu of ink. These wishes are much more powerful than ordinary wishes. Satan can also grant normal wishes (as a Wish spell) without the blood contract, but he rarely does so except to give some kind of assistance to those already doomed, or perhaps as a reward for faithful service. For anything important, he usually insists on a contract.
After seven years a person who has sold his soul to Satan for one of these wishes will surrender his soul to the devil (wishes notwithstanding). If the individual has wished for immortality, then the time of collection is whenever the individual decides that he has had enough of life, and voluntarily goes to hell (most such people do in the end), or else until the person dies by violence. (Immortality does not protect a person from being killed either by accident or by combat, although Satan will sometimes give a person some protection against this, such as magic armor or a wish or two, or something along those lines, because Satan prefers people to come to hell of their own free will.)
As for those who appear to be able to put with immortality, Satan has been known to give out a few unexpected surprises, which of course is not covered in the contract, in order to make the decision to go to hell easier by making life a little less pleasant (i.e., intolerable). If a person has not wished for immortality, then he may have more wishes besides the first one. Each one costs a year of the condemned one’s remaining time.
撒旦(“黑暗之王”,“敌人”,路西法,“光明之王”):首先在魔鬼中,撒旦是所有人都害怕的。他可以以任何他想要的形式出现,但他喜欢的形式是一个普通人,拥有最有可能产生信任和尊重的人的特征。在他精通的地方(这在如今很少见,尽管变得更加普遍),他将以人形形式出现,大约7英尺高,有犄角、尾巴和音叉,有深红色的肤色,几乎是栗色,有着庄严的面容。他可以随心所欲地移动,他可以准确地传送、跨维度,甚至在需要的时候穿越时间。为了用武器攻击撒旦,攻击者需要一个+ 3武器来打击他,他也必须有一个明确的良心和绝对的决心去追求一个人的目标,当然这必须是最纯粹的动机。任何胆敢攻击撒旦的人都会自动落入他的控制之中(一个愿望可以恢复一个人,但不会有更少的事情发生)。当然,撒旦不会被灵能攻击所影响,但他不会使用正常的心灵攻击模式。撒旦可以随心所欲地使用任何咒语或魔法。他施展法术,就好像他是一个30级的人物,除了德鲁伊的法术,他在14级的能力上施法。他有500个有效的灵能能力,但在使用灵能异能时,他并没有使用任何点。
For game purposes, it is best to have the contract actually written out, with identical copies for a character and the DM (which any involved player should study carefully before signing), because Satan is extremely literal, and he takes sadistic pleasure in twisting the intent of a contract by fulfilling its letter. Normally, a lawyer cannot be consulted on such a contract, and those who will give legal advice on such matters charge an exorbitant fee. The contract will typically be simply worded,stating who gives and gets what. Once an individual accepts a wish from Satan, there is little chance of getting out of the contract, but it is possible. It is impossible to remove the compulsion to surrender one's soul to Satan unless the contract was signed while the individual was not in control of himself, in which case the contract is void and the wish is revoked. Satan will retaliate against the person responsible for this. However, as long as a person is satisfied with the contract, or at least as long as the person does not want to get out of the contract, there is no power in the universe —not a wish, not even God Himself (well, maybe He can, but He never has) — that can terminate the contract. On the other hand, if the condemned person decides that he wants to get out of the contract, there are steps he can take. He still cannot remove the compulsion to relinquish his soul, but he can enlist the assistance of some ultra-powerful being who will do battle with Satan on his behalf.
Unfortunately, once the person decides that he wants to terminate the contract, the time he has remaining in years is reduced to that many hours before Satan comes to collect, so one must act quickly after changing his mind. Also, any other devil will attempt to detain the condemned person, or failing that, to kill him. The devils cooperate with Satan in this one area because the reputation of all devildom is at stake. Naturally, a person cannot take any positive action to get out of a contract without first deciding to do so. Any cleric of at least Patriarch level can invoke the name of his deity to save the person’s soul. However, they usually require some token of one's devotion to the cause of good, such as the performance of some appropriate quest, as the price of redemption. In any event, an Atonement spell must be cast on the person, and a Quest usually is, too (hence the requirement of an eighth-level cleric). The normal penalty for failure to complete the Quest is the immediate return of the person’s soul to Satan.
Satan’s allies include those covens of witches who worship him, most others who have sold their souls to him, and Belial. Sometimes Satan will ask one of the humans under his influence to perform some task for him. This is entirely voluntary (well, almost; it’s not a good idea to cross Satan), and he will reward the person appropriately upon completion. His enemies include all those devils who acknowledge Asmodeus as lord of hell (i.e., all the other devils except Belial), all the demons, all the angels, all the gods and other powers of good, chaos, neutrality, or any combination thereof, and all the gods and other powers of lawful evil and neutral lawful or neutral evil who are allied with or support Asmodeus or any other enemy of Satan. (And you thought your character had problems!)

Belial   Astaroth
Very rare   Very rare
1   1
-4   -6
12" by himself,   18“ by himself,
24"/48" in chariot   9"124" on dragon
122 hit points   155 hit points
1%   95%
U, W   unlimited
1 bite   1 (plus snake)
3-18 plus poison   1-8 (see snake entry in Monster Manual)
+2 or better   +3 or better
weapon to hit   weapon to hit
80°/o   90%
Genius   Supra-genius
Lawful evil   Lawful evil
L (11')   L(8')
222   Special
All   Special
Belial (pronouncd BEE-lee-ul; the name means "Worthlessness"): At one time, Belial was the devil in charge of politicians, the supreme commander of the armies of hell and the personal lieutenant of Satan. He now spends most of his time on the run throughout the multiverse. In the Lesser Key of Solomon, a medieval grimoire which lists and describes most of the archdevils, Belial is described as a beautiful angelic being riding a chariot of fire, and his voice is pleasant to listen to. Belial’s Chariot of Fire has three times the hit points and capacity of a Chariot of Sustarre, but otherwise it is equivalent in all respects. If it is destroyed, he can replace it the next day. He has the power of beguiling, with -2 on the defender’s saving throw. Those who wish to summon Belial must sacrifice something of great value to the summoner, because he wishes to avoid being summoned by a potential enemy, of whom he has many.
Once per turn or melee round, Belial may use any one of the following powers at will: pyrotechnics, produce flame, wall of fire, light, read languages, read magic, detect invisible, locate object, invisibility, beguiling (as noted above), geas, restoration, raise dead, (fulfull another's) wish. Once per day he can find a familiar of the summoner’s choice automatically, and use a symbol of fear and a symbol of stunning.
His skill in dealing with politicians is almost equal to that of Asmodeus, although Asmodeus will attempt to punish anyone who he finds out has been consorting with Belial. As the former commander of the armies of hell, Belial still commands respect from the troops (somewhat like Napoleon). They will notdirect- ly act to harm him, and they will give him some assistance if they can do so without being caught by the other arch-devils. In the presence of both Asmodeus and Belial, the armies of hell will make an attempt to capture Belial, because they do not want the anger of the lord of hell upon them.
Belial's other allies are Satan and the former lord’s followers. His enemies are the same as those of Satan, except for the armies of Hell as stated. However, the other devils have more enmity for Belial than for Satan, because Belial did a lot of Satan’s dirty work when the two of them were in charge, and Belial seemed to enjoy harassing the devils.
Astaroth: This arch-devil is the treasurer of hell. He used to be third in the hierarchy behind Beelzebub and Adramelech, but now he acts rather independently of the current regime. Nominally he is still third, behind Asmodeus and Baalzebul, although neither of them would try to pull rank on Astaroth except in a dire emergency. Likewise, he never orders other devils around, but sometimes he will exchange favors if he wants something done. He appears as an awesome man-like being who stands 8 feet tall. He looks somewhat overweight and is richly dressed, reeking with filthy lucre.
He also reeks with a burning stench which will cause 1-6 points of fire damage to all creatures within 30’, although a ring of fire resistance or its equivalent will protect a being against this. Still, one must make a saving throw vs. poison if within 10’ or lose consciousness from the smell for 2-12 turns unless one can get a neutralize poison within one turn. (Losing consciousness in the presence of an arch-devil is not a very bright thing to do, and should be avoided.)
Astaroth usually rides a huge ancient red dragon, and he carries a large pit viper (giant poisonous snake) wrapped around his right arm. He can also strike with his left arm for 1-8 points of damage because, like most devils, he is left-handed.
Astaroth may once per turn or melee round use one of the following powers at will: pyrotechnics, produce flame, wall of fire, ice storm, wall of ice, continual light, read languages, read magic, detect invisible, locate object, invisibility, dispel magic, shape change, beguile, rulership, charm monster, geas, restoration, raise dead, (fulfill another’s) wish. Once per day he may do each of the following: legend lore, contact lower plane and precognition (90% accurate). His gaze causes confusion to his enemies (as spell).
Astaroth can create treasure, in the form of coins, gems or jewelry, at will. The DM will determine how much he has lying around, and how much can be carried away. He can teach any of the liberal arts very quickly. Astaroth is immune to psionic attack, and he cannot make a psionic attack.
Astaroth will willingly talk about the fall of the devils, but he does not speak of his own part in that event. In fact, he acts as though he was not subject to the fall, as if he were still working selflessly for the will of God and the good of mankind. Nevertheless, he is a devil of great power, and most devils give him great respect and a wide berth. One must take what he says to the contrary with a grain of salt.
Curiously enough, a number of sources state that Astaroth,in addition to his duties as the devil responsible for financial matters, is also the devil in charge of supervising the activities of devils in the United States. This would seem to indicate that the devils find the United States of great importance and stature, for no other nation has a devil of such rank overseeing it. He may also be partially responsible for all the commercial hype that Americans are subjected to. Then again, it could just be that mere men create such colossal inanity. No one knows for sure (except maybe God, in which case He will hold those culpable to account for their actions).
彼列(pronouncd BEE-lee-ul;这个名字的意思是“无价值”):曾经,彼列尔是掌管政治家的恶魔,是地狱军队的最高统帅和撒旦的私人中尉。现在他大部分时间都花在了多元宇宙的运行上。在所罗门的小调中,一个中世纪的大魔王,列出并描述了大部分的大恶魔,他被描述成一个美丽的天使,正骑着一辆火的战车,他的声音听起来很好听。Belial的战车的火力有三倍于战车的战车,但在其他方面它是等同的。如果它被破坏了,他可以在第二天替换它。他拥有迷人的力量,在防守者的豁免上有2-2。那些想要召唤恶魔的人必须牺牲一些有价值的东西给召唤者,因为他希望避免被潜在的敌人召唤,他有很多敌人。

Last word: The Lesser Key of Solomon warns that when summoning Asmodeus, the summoner must not be wearing anything on his head, or Asmodeus will “deceive" him. That includes helms and other headgear. Forewarned is forearmed.
Play for fun.