Weapon Attacks and Special Abilities: Many places in the rules use the term 「ranged weapon attacks」 and similar terms, but how does this apply to spells, spell-like abilities, supernatural abilities, and extraordinary abilities (heretoafter called special abilities) that require ranged attacks but might not necessarily seem like weapons?
In general, special abilities that require attack rolls benefit and suffer from all modifiers affecting attack rolls even if those modifiers mention weapon attack rolls (such as the penalty for firing into melee, the bonus on attack rolls from Point-Blank Shot and inspire courage, and the like), unless the spell specifically calls out that it doesn't apply them (for instance spiritual weapon calls out that it isn't affected by feats and combat actions, but it would still have to deal with cover, and firing into melee if ranged).
When it comes to modifiers that affect weapon damage rolls, or simply 「damage rolls」 (such as the bonus on damage rolls from Point-Blank Shot, inspire courage, and smite evil), special abilities that deal damage on a successful attack roll, apply them on hit point damage only, and only once per casting or use, rather than once per attack. For instance, if a spell or special ability launched a dozen different ranged attacks simultaneously, only one (of the user's choice) would receive bonus damage. This doesn't apply on area effects with the rare potential for extraneous attack rolls, like fireball. However, there is a category of abilities that deserve a special note: Abilities like Arcane Strike that specifically enhance a character's weapon or weapons themselves never apply to special abilities (with the exception of special abilities like the warlock's mystic bolts that specifically call out that Arcane Strike applies).
In the same vein as abilities like Arcane Strike that affect a character's weapons, abilities that say 「with a weapon,」 「with a melee weapon,」 and 「with a ranged weapon」 almost never work with special abilities because such wording is almost always used as shorthand for 「manufactured weapon,」 「manufactured melee weapon,」 and 「manufactured ranged weapon.」 The exception is abilities that deal damage when a creature touches or hits you in melee (for instance, the occultis's energy ward focus power), which should also deal damage when a creature makes a melee touch attack against you but rarely call them out directly.
Certain special abilities (for instance rays, kinetic blasts, and mystic bolts) can specifically be selected with feats like Weapon Focus and Improved Critical. They still aren't considered a type of weapon for other rules; they are not part of any weapon group and don't qualify for the effects of fighter weapon training, warpriest sacred weapon, magus arcane pool, paladin divine bond, or any other such ability.
Abilities that modify the action usage of ranged weapon attacks or require their own special action almost never work with special abilities, since special abilities require their own actions. For instance, Pinpoint Targeting wouldn't work with scorching ray or the soundstriker's weird words because each of them requires its own action to activate and thus can't be part of the feat's specific standard action. Rare exceptions include mystic bolts and kinetic blade, which can specifically be used as part of other actions.